FEMA National US&R Response System Definitions

The comprehensive list of Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) definitions below is designed to be an online centralized location for all definitions and abbreviations used or referenced by the FEMA National Urban Search and Rescue System and government agencies involved with Emergency Support Function (ESF) #9.  This list of definitions is compiled from wide range of doctrine published by FEMA, the FEMA National US&R Response System, Department of Homeland Security, United States Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Department of the Interior, as well as other federal agencies that support ESF #9.  Refer to the bottom of this webpage for a complete list of all doctrine used to compile the definitions in this list.  This list of definitions will expand over time and be updated on a regular basis to mirror ongoing revisions to doctrine, procedures, policies, and curriculum.  All future doctrine issued by the FEMA National US&R Response System will include a specific Section in Chapter 1 with definitions introduced in the doctrine when appropriate.  

 

Recommendations, Questions, and Comments about this list of definitions should be emailed to FEMA-USR@fema.dhs.gov with “US&R Definitions” in the Subject Line.  

A

Abuse: Physical or psychological maltreatment of the canine. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Accountability: A property management function, which encompasses the receipt, assignment, record keeping, day-to-day control, physical inventory, and disposition of nonexpendable property and certain expendable property which is tracked and accounted for such as but not limited to water, MRE’s, cots and other commodities.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Accountable Property: Nonexpendable property with an acquisition cost of $15,000 or more for which controls and official property records are maintained, physical inventories are conducted, or property that is otherwise assigned and accounted for. Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Accountable Property Officer (APO): An individual designated in writing to maintain the accountability for FEMA property (in use or storage) in accordance with a prescribed system which shows the authorized debits, credits, and available balances on hand or obligated for use in such an activity. Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Acquisition: To obtain property through purchase, fabrication, lease, or transfer. Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Acquisition Cost:  The original cost, which includes any shipping and/or transportation costs to the government of an item of personal property as it is recorded in the financial and accounting records of the holding agency. Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Acidosis: A condition in which the pH balance in the body fluids becomes acidic.  Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Action Plan: A plan that identifies courses of action, assigns them to responsible entities (e.g., a program office), and establishes timelines for their completion.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Action Plan Manager/Accountable Tracking Body: An individual or group of people responsible for tracking updates to the action plan, maintaining accountability, and providing updates on progress made on courses of action.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Action Tracking: The primary accountability function of the Continuous Improvement Process. The action plan manager or accountable tracking body communicates regularly with the responsible entities on implementation of courses of action, resource shortfalls, and other potential risks or limiting factors.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Activation: The status of a System resource placed at the direction, control and funding of DHS/FEMA in response to, or in anticipation of, a presidential declaration of a major disaster or emergency under the Stafford Act.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Activation Order: The DHS/FEMA communication placing a System resource under the direction, control, and funding of DHS/FEMA. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Active Search Suspended (ACTSUS) Pending Further Developments: A CISAR term used when the CISAR operation cannot be terminated because person(s) remain missing and further search efforts appear futile, the CISAR operation may be suspended. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Ad Hoc Group: A group temporarily established by the US&R Branch Chief for a specific purpose and period of time. The recommendation to convene an Ad Hoc Group will be generated through the Advisory Group. The composition, organization, Co-Chairs, Functional Group assignment and membership of an Ad Hoc Group will be determined by the US&R Branch Chief and Advisory Group Chair, based on requirements.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Adjunct Instructor:  A level of designation of a US&R instructor.  Only members of the FEMA US&R System may apply for this designation by the Training Subgroup. Adjunct instructors work under the guidance of the Lead Instructor.  The number of Adjunct Instructors required to teach a course is prescribed by the instructor to student ratio in the current course curriculum.  Source: FEMA US&R Training Administration Program Manual.  

 

Adjustable Sling Leg:  A sling that is not fixed in length but is able to be adjusted to accommodate variances in rigging around an object’s center of gravity, or as required to complete the lift effectively. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Administrative Readiness Evaluation (ARE): An objective verification of the task force’s most current self-evaluation of the three main readiness categories.  Technical visits comprise the second category of on-site visits and concentrate primarily on administrative practices but could be tailored to focus on operational methodology if required.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluations. 

 

Advisory: A DHS/FEMA communication to System resources indicating that an event has occurred or is anticipated to occur that may require Alert or Activation of System resources.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Advisory Group: Comprised of Senior Staff and the five standing Functional Group Leaders who are subject matter experts that are responsible for overseeing the five standing Functional Groups, assisting with development of strategy, and identifying resources and tactics to accomplish goals.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Advisory Group Chair: A member of a System task force, appointed by the US&R Branch Chief to coordinate the activities of the Advisory Group and Advisory Support Group including; working with Senior Staff to assign tasks to specific Functional Groups, reviewing recommendations from the Groups, and forwarding supported recommendations to the US&R Strategic Group or US&R Branch for review and approval. The Advisory Group Chair is a voting member of the Strategic Group.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Advisory Organization (AO): The Advisory Organization of the FEMA US&R System is comprised of three elements; the Strategic Group, the Advisory Group, (comprised of Senior Staff, and four Functional Group Leaders) and the Advisory Support Group (comprised of members of the four Functional Groups, Subgroups, Units, and Ad Hoc Groups). Each Group is responsible for developing and maintaining their respective areas and integrating them into the System. The members of the groups, both System and non-System personnel are chosen based on their management and/or technical expertise to provide advice and recommendations upon which decisions are based.   Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual. 

 

Advisory Support Group: Comprised of the five standing Functional Groups’ members, all Subgroups, all Units, and Ad Hoc Groups as assigned. Members are functional area subject matter experts that are responsible for providing advice, recommendations, and leadership and are in either an active or reserve status.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Aerated Water: White, foamy water that, when present, shows more turbulence in the water and also impacts boat performance.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Aerial Point of Debarkation (APOD): The airport to which task forces will be transported by either military or contracted aircraft that has been arranged by the FEMA US&R Branch.  The APOD may be either a civilian airport or a military airfield.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Aerial Point of Embarkation (APOE): The pre-determined airport to which task forces will report within six hours upon activation to rendezvous with aircraft for transportation to the Aerial Point of Debarkation (APOD).  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Aeromedical Evacuation (AE): The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation. Source: Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. 

Aeromedical Staging (AS): The personnel, equipment, aircraft parking ramps, and facilities used for aeromedical evacuation aircraft operations. Source: Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.

Affected Jurisdiction: An affected jurisdiction is responsible for the management of an incident. Those

responsibilities should include, but are not limited, conducting initial damage and needs assessments, assessing and assigning local SAR resources, identifying SAR shortfalls, requesting assistance, and establishing operational priorities.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Affected State: A state that is affected by a significant event or disaster and is responsible for conducting damage and needs assessments and for making all requests for Federal US&R assistance through ESF #9 at the state EOC or the JFO. The state may provide an ESF #9 representative(s) to serve as a liaison to the ESF #9 at the JFO and assist with the coordination of US&R requests and activities with his/her Federal counterparts.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Affiliated Member: Individuals not normally employed by a Sponsoring Agency or Participating Agency and individuals normally affiliated with a Sponsoring Agency or Participating Agency as volunteers. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

After-Action Debriefing Form: Used by the Task Force managers at the conclusion of a mission to collect and categorize appropriate information. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

After-Action Meeting: A formal meeting of the Task Force personnel assigned to a mission after return from the field. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

After-Action Report: A Continuous Improvement product that provides retrospective analysis of an incident or exercise, outlining strengths, areas for improvement, potential best practices, and mission critical issues.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Aggression: An attempted or actual unprovoked attack on another canine or person. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Aircraft Coordinator (ACO): A person who coordinates the involvement of multiple aircraft in SAR operations.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Air Burst: A nuclear weapon explosion that is high enough in the air to keep the fireball from touching the ground.  Because the fireball does not reach the ground and does not pick up any surface material, the radioactivity in the fallout from an air burst is relatively insignificant compared with a surface burst.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Air Response Module (ARM): The Air Response Module is a predefined subset of the FEMA US&R Task Force Cache and Equipment List for a NIMS Type 2 US&R Task Force that is no more than 8 equipment pallets, two baggage pallets, and the option to add three pallet positions for centerline seats.  The ARM is no more than 13 pallets in total and does not exceed 90,000 lbs.  The ARM has been designed so that all teams in the System have a uniform, planned air response that will ensure the capability of resources to deploy successfully utilizing either civilian contracted or military aircraft.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2018-003.

 

Air-Purifying Respirator (APR):  A respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment. 

 

ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable): A process to control or manage radiation exposure to individuals and releases of radioactive material to the environment so that doses are as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public welfare considerations permit.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Alert: The status of a System resource’s readiness when triggered by an Alert Order indicated that DHS/FEMA may Activate the System resource.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

Alert: (K9 Specific) - A natural, characteristic change in the canine’s behavior when the canine recognizes human scent. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Alert Order: The DHS/FEMA communication that places a System resource on Alert status.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

All-Terrain (AT) Hydraulic Boom Truck Crane:  A combination of rough terrain and hydraulic truck cranes; have a lower center of gravity and are equipped with highway tires, improved suspension, and all-wheel drive capability; allows them to be self-transported from job to job at up to 55 mph. Once confronted with a rough job site, can use multi-wheel steering and all-wheel drive to quickly position themselves in order to lift the appropriate load. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA): ADA prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, communications, and government activities. Specifically, the ADA provides a clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against people with disabilities; provides clear, strong, consistent, and enforceable standards addressing discrimination against people with disabilities; ensures that the federal government plays a central role in enforcing the standards on behalf of people with disabilities; and invokes the sweep of congressional authority, including the power to enforce the Fourteenth Amendment and to regulate commerce, to address major areas of discrimination faced day-to-day by people with disabilities. Source: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Section 12101).

 

ADA Disability: ADA defines disability when referring to an individual as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual, a record of such an impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment. An individual meets the requirement of “being regarded as having such an impairment” if the individual establishes that he or she has been subjected to an action prohibited under Chapter 126 of the ADA because of an actual or perceived physical or mental impairment whether or not the impairment limits or is perceived to limit a major life activity.  Source: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Section 12102).

 

Animal: Animals include household pets, service and assistance animals, working dogs, agricultural animals/livestock, exotic animals, and animals housed in shelters or rescue organizations. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Animal Evacuation: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating the evacuation or rescue of pets/companion animals during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Annex: A level of FEMA doctrine below a Manual, the annex is designed to provide operationally specific guidance.  Within FEMA US&R, a concept of operations is issued as an annex to the FEMA US&R Operations Manual.  FEMA doctrine defines an annex is either a stand-alone document or part of a larger document such as a manual or guide and is typically ten or more pages in length.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

 

Appendix: A level of FEMA doctrine below a Manual, the appendix is a supplement to a manual, guide, handbook, or annex and is designed to add information or contains supporting and reference information for the document. An appendix is located at the end of a manual, guide, or handbook and can be from one to ten pages in length.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

Applied Agility: The combination of basic agility with canine search. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Applied Direction and Control: The combination of basic direction and control with canine search. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Appropriation:  Funding established by an Act of Congress that authorizes a federal agency to incur obligations and to make payment for the purpose designated by the appropriation.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Aquatic Wide Area Search: A search of urban and suburban flooding, often with a lack of identified locations of missing persons.  FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

ArcGIS Online: ArcGIS Online is a collaborative web GIS that allows you to use, create, and share maps, scenes, apps, layers, analytics, and data. You get access to content in ArcGIS Living Atlas of the World, ArcGIS apps, and cloud infrastructure, where you can add items; publish web layers; and create maps, apps, and scenes. This is the foundation platform for the National US&R Common Operating Platform. Source: ArcGIS Online FAQ

 

Arch: A curved structure used as a support over an open space. It produces an outward thrust as well as downward forces at its supported ends. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Area Command: An organization established to oversee the management of multiple incidents that are each being handled by a separate Incident Command System organization or to oversee the management of a very large or evolving incident that has multiple incident management teams engaged. An agency administrator/executive or other public official with jurisdictional responsibility for the incident usually makes the decision to establish an Area Command. An Area Command is activated only if necessary, depending on the complexity of the incident and incident management span-of-control considerations.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Area for Improvement (AFI): Type of observation that explains how outcomes did not meet expectations set out in plans or instances where the program did follow the process or system requirements, but the outcome was inadequate.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

Area of Operations:  The four sectors of a circle in which a crane boom can be positioned to lift a load. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Area of Responsibility (AOR): Geographical area associated with a command within which the commander has the authority to plan and conduct operations – in addition to geographic delineation, an area of responsibility may be relative to subject, mission, or other factors.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Arrival Point: Any facility or point of entry into a host-state/jurisdiction that assists evacuees. Arrival points may include transfer points and reception processing sites (for transportation- assisted evacuees), welcome centers and information points (for self-evacuees), shelters, and other congregate facilities. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Asset: Any resource, such as a person, organization, facility, relationship, equipment, or supply, at the disposition of an organization for use in an operational or support role. Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Asset Visibility (AV): AV is the capability to provide users with timely and accurate information on the location, quantity, movement, status, and identity of units, personnel, equipment, materiel, and supplies. AV encompasses much more than in-transit visibility, which simply provides information about the movement of something, including its current and past speed and location.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Assembly Point (AP): Location or facility where Task Force members initially report after receiving activation orders from the sponsoring organization. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

Assessment: The step in the canine training cycle that determines whether the goal was achieved. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Assigned Protection Factor (APF): The workplace level of respiratory protection that a respirator or class of respirators is expected to provide to task force members when the task force implements a continuing, effective respiratory protection program as specified by this section.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.

 

Assigned Resources: Resources (personnel and commodities) checked in and assigned work tasks at a disaster. Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Atmosphere-Supplying Respirator: A respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.

 

Attitude: The positioning of the boat in relation to the current and is either positive or negative.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ): Where public safety is primary, the authority having jurisdiction is usually a State, County, or Municipal Leader; State US&R Coordinator, Mayor or City Official, City or County Emergency Manager, Fire or Police Chief or even a designated Incident Management Team.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Available Resources: Disaster-based resources (personnel and commodities) which are available for assignment. Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Axial load: A tension or compression load which passes through the center of a structural member (like a column, beam, truss member, diagonal brace or hanger rod). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 
 

B

Backfill: The personnel practice of temporarily replacing a person in his or her usual position with another person. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

Backhoe: A piece of heavy equipment containing a loader on front and a small excavator at the rear. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Back Chaining: A process in which the canine learns a series of independent behaviors that are linked together in a fixed order and taught backward. Process begins with the handler teaching the last behavior first, then the second to last, etc. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Back Stroke: A paddling stroke that involves the paddle being put into the water behind the paddler and pushed forward through the water. This propels the vessel backwards.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

Bark Indication: A canine’s bark, which is a trained behavior, the canine performs to clearly identify the location of the strongest source of human scent. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Base Camp: The location at which the primary logistics functions are coordinated and administered.  There is one Base Camp per incident. This is where significant equipment maintenance, repair, reorder, and procurement activities occur. It is also where task force managers plan and coordinate the various interrelated functions, which enable the emergency operations to meet mission objectives as effectively and safety as possible.  Source: FEMA US&R Logistics Team Training Curriculum.

 

Base of Operations: Task Force base camp used to facilitate mission activities. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

Basic Agility: The ability of a canine to move confidently through a controlled obstacle course. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Basic Direction and Control: The ability of a handler to direct a canine to a single, specific location. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Basket Hitch: A sling cradles the load while both ends are attached to the hook; more than one sling may be necessary for stability and load control. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Bark Props: Items that conceals a Target Odor, which is used to test the canine to perform the bark indication.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Barotrauma: An injury due to the sudden over pressurization of gas-filled organs or spaces; failure of a gas-filled organ or space (e.g., lungs, middle ear, and sinuses) to equalize internal pressure to ambient pressure.  Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Bay: The space between beams/trusses or between rows of columns considered in transverse planes. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Beam: A horizontal structural member, subject to compression, tension, and shear, usually found in any one of three different configurations: cantilever, continuous, and simple. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Bearing Wall: An interior or exterior wall that supports a load in addition to its own weight. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Biological Attack: The deliberate release of germs or other biological substances that can make you sick.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Biological Incident: An event in which a biological agent harms or threatens to harm humans, livestock, or agricultural or economic assets.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Bioterrorism: The deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment.  Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, cannot.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Blast Effects: The impacts caused by the shock wave of energy through air that is created by detonation of a nuclear device. The blast wave is a pulse of air in which the pressure increases sharply at the front, accompanied by winds.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Blister Agent: Also known as a Vesicant, a blister agent is a chemical warfare agent which produces local irritation and damage to the skin and mucous membranes, pain and injury to the eyes, reddening and blistering of the skin, and when inhaled, damage to the respiratory tract.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Blitz Attack: An operational approach in which all deployed task force personnel are utilized in the impacted area for a 24-to-36-hour duration because of the high potential for live rescues in the early hours of the incident.  The use of a blitz attack will necessitate a full stand-down of the task force at the conclusion of the blitz. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Block: An assembly consisting of a steel enclosure housing a number of sheaves or pulleys that carry the ropes or chains used to lift a load; the block allows for the free turning or rotating of a load without changing the orientation of the hoist ropes. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Blood Agent: A chemical warfare agent that is inhaled and absorbed into the blood.  The blood carries the agent to all body tissues where it interferes with the tissue oxygenation process. The brain is especially affected. The effect on the brain leads to cessation of respiration followed by cardiovascular collapse.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Blue Sheet: The “Blue Sheet” is the condensed name of the Summary Report of an Incident Within an Incident (IWI) or Near Miss Event.  The Blue Sheet is a brief summary report of any IWI or near miss event and is intended to provide factual information submitted to improve situational and safety awareness. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Bolus: A specific amount of medication or fluid administered over a period of time. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Boom Truck Crane: A versatile crane mounted on a commercial truck chassis and may be anchored at either the front or rear end of the truck bed; may be configured with a hydraulic telescoping or articulating boom. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Bow: The front of the boat; in a raft, the direction the paddlers in a raft are facing.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Bow Lines: Rope attached to the bow D-ring of a vessel able to be used for towing if a towing bridle is not available.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Bradycardia: A condition in which the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Braided Multi-Part Sling: Composed of multiple individual wire ropes that are interwoven to make a single sling; more flexible than similar capacity standard slings; can fit odd-shaped loads, such as rubble-sized concrete, better than standard slings. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Branch: The organizational level having functional or geographical responsibility for major aspects of incident and accident operations. A branch is organizationally situated between the section and the division or group in the Operations Section, and between the section and units in the Logistics Section. Branches are identified by the use of Roman numerals or by functional area.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Branch Office: The organizational entity within DHS/FEMA that is responsible for day-to-day administration of the National US&R Response System.  This is also referred to as the Program Office in Title 44 CFR Part 208 and the US&R Branch Office in FEMA Headquarters Doctrine.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Budget Object Class (BOC): Provides a method for recording the financial transactions of the Agency in terms of the nature of the services or purchases for which obligations are incurred, rather than in terms of the program served. Mission Assignment BOC codes include 2501 and 2508.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Building Marking System: A visual marking using a square that is placed at any accessible entrance to a compromised structure.  The system is used to categorize structures as either low, medium, or high risk and may include known hazards within the structure. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Brick Veneer: A single thickness of brick wall facing placed over frame construction or structural masonry. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Bridge or Bridging Stimulus: Conditioned reinforcer that marks a desired behavior in a canine. Often called a bridge because it bridges the gap in time from when the canine performs the desired behavior to when he/she receives the reinforcer (e.g., the use of a clicker or a whistle). Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Bureau of Humanitarian Assistance (BHA): BHA is the lead federal coordinator for international disaster assistance and represents the US government in the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG), harnessing the expertise and unique capacities of other U.S. government entities to effectively respond to natural disasters and complex crises around the world.  Source: USAID website

 

Buttress: A wall reinforcement or brace built on the outside of a structure, sometimes called a ”wall column.” When separated from the wall and connected by an arch at the top, it is called a flying buttress. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

C

Cable Laid Sling: Composed of multiple wire ropes grouped together; more flexible than standard slings, but are not meant for fitting odd-shaped loads and probably would not be used in US&R-type situations. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Cache: A DHS/FEMA-approved complement of tools, equipment, and supplies stored in a designated location, available for emergencyuse. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide. 

Camber: The relative pitch of the boat as it maneuvers through a turn. The higher the camber, the more a boat is pitched while it maneuvers a turn.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

Canine Search: The use of canines trained in Live Find (LF) or Human Remains (HR) detection to detect and/or locate victims. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Canine Search Specialist (CSS): A rostered handler who has completed the Canine Search Specialist Course.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Canine Search Team (CST): A general term for a canine search specialist and a certified canine that can be deployed to a wide variety of search environments.  See also CST-LF and CST-HRD. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Canine Search Team – Live Find (CST-LF): A certified CST is comprised of a search canine and a handler who have successfully attained CST Certification for Live Find, which includes successful completion of the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) and the Canine Search Team Certification (CE) for Live Find.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Canine Search Team - Human Remains Detection (CST-HRD): A certified CST is comprised of a search canine and a handler who have successfully attained CST Certification for Human Remains Detection, which includes successful completion of the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) and the Canine Search Team Certification (CE) for Human Remains Detection.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Canister or Cartridge: A container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.

 

Cantilever Beam: A beam that has two or more supports but extends beyond one end support and ends in clear space (similar to a diving board). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Cantilever Collapse: When many levels of floor collapse, some extend out from the remainder, like a diving board. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Capability Performance: Measurement of the execution of a core capability during an exercise or incident.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Capstone: The highest level of FEMA doctrine, FEMA Publication 1 (Pub 1) is the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA’s) capstone doctrine. Pub 1 describes FEMA’s ethos, which is to serve the Nation by helping its people and first responders, especially when they are most in need. It identifies FEMA’s core values of compassion, fairness, integrity, and respect. Finally, Pub 1 delineates nine guiding principles that provide overarching direction to FEMA employees for the performance of their duties.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

 

Captive Animals: Captive animals live in zoos or aquariums and that might otherwise be endangered wild animals, and in research facilities, and which are totally dependent on humans for survival. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Casualty Collection Point (CCP): A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating a location that is used for the assembly, triage (sorting), medical stabilization and evacuation of casualties during US&R operations. This is the preferred term to use instead of the older term Lily Pad.   Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Catastrophic Incident: Any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, or government functions. Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue (CISAR): Civil SAR operations carried out as all or part of the response to an emergency or disaster declared by the President, under provisions of the NRF and ESF #9 Annex.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Cavity Wall: A wall of two parallels wythes (vertical wall of bricks, one masonry unit thick) separated by an air space. Wythes are connected by metal ties. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Cellulitis: A skin infection that develops as a result of bacterial entry via breaches in the skin barrier characterize by redness (erythema), warmth, swelling and pain. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Center of Gravity: Point within an object around which the object’s mass is evenly distributed. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Certificate of Authorization (COA): An FAA grant of approval for a specific operation and the COA may be used as an authorization, issued by the Air Traffic Organization (ATO), to a public operator for a specific UA activity. COAs for civil and commercial operations are only for aircraft that have received an airworthiness certificate from Aircraft Certification Service (AIR). Provisions or limitations may be imposed as part of the approval process to ensure the UA can operate safely with other airspace users. Source: Federal Aviation Administration Order 8900.1.

Certification Evaluation – Live Find (CE-LF): An evaluation of the minimal skills identified as necessary for a team to operate in disaster environments.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Certification Evaluation - Human Remains Detection (CE-HRD): An evaluation of the minimal skills identified as necessary for a team to operate in disaster environments.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Chafing: Irritation of the skin caused by friction due to prolonged rubbing between two skin surfaces or clothing. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Chain: A series of known canine behaviors performed in succession on one command. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Chain Hoist: A mechanical device made with a pulley held together by a closed chain used for lifting heavy loads of objects and equipment. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Chain of Command: The orderly line of authority within the ranks of the incident management organization. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.   

Chain Sling: A length of chain with a master link on one end and a hook at the other end; some chain slings may be configured with grab to grab, grab to slip, or other combinations of devices. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Chaining: The process of creating relevance between a series of behaviors in a canine. The end of one behavior by the canine is the signal to start the next behavior. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Chair: A device of bent wire used to hold reinforcing bars in position. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Change Management: The process of preparing, equipping, and supporting individuals to successfully adopt change in order to drive organizational success and outcomes.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Charter Aircraft: Aircraft operated and maintained by a commercial aviation service provider that are hired by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security or DoD under a contractual agreement specifying performance and one-time exclusive use. Source: Department of Homeland Security Management Directive System MD Number: 0020.1, Aviation Management and Safety. 

Check: A lengthwise separation of wood fibers, usually extending across the annular rings. Check commonly result from stresses that develop in wood during the seasoning process. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Chemical Attack: The deliberate release of a toxic gas, liquid or solid that can poison people and the environment.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) Emergency Response Force Package (CERFP): A National Guard unit. The CERFPs provide a regional response capability comprised of existing traditional National Guard units task organized to respond to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) attacks. The CERFPs are capable of performing search and extraction, casualty/patient decontamination, mass medical triage, and treatment at a CBRNE incident.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High Yield Explosives (CBRNE): An emergency resulting from the deliberate or unintentional release of nuclear, biological, radiological, toxic, or poisonous chemical materials, or the detonation of a high yield explosive.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Chief: The Incident Command System title for individuals responsible for management of functional Sections: Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance/Administration, and Intelligence/Investigations (if established as a separate Section).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Choker Hitch: A sling where one end passes through the eye of the opposite end (or through the inside of the opposite loop of an endless sling) and is pulled tight around the object that is to be lifted (like a Larks Foot). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Chord: Main members of trusses as distinguished from diagonals. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Classical Conditioning: A simple form of canine behavior modification where a neutral stimulus elicits a behavior for which there was formerly no association. Once established, classical conditioning leads to anticipation. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Coastal Flooding: Flooding that occurs along the Great Lakes, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government.  The CFR is divided into 50 Titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Each title is divided into chapters, which usually bear the name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into parts that cover specific regulatory areas. Large parts may be subdivided into subparts. All parts are organized in sections, and most citations to the CFR refer to material at the section level.  Example: 2 CFR 200.56 Revised as of December 19, 2014 is explained as the following:

Title: 2

Part: 200

Section: 56

Year: 2014

 

Collapse: The failure of any portion of a structure. See also: Cantilever, Curtain Fall Wall, Lean-to-Floor, Lift and Drop, Ninety Degree Wall, Offset, Overturn, Pancake Floor, and Soft 1st Story.  Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Collapse Hazard Zone: The area established by the Task Force for the purpose of controlling all access to the immediate area of the collapse. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Collapse Zone: Usually defined as the area around a structure, within which the structure will be occupied if it completely collapses. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Collection Analysis Plan (CAP): A plan that organizes and establishes a clear way forward for data collection efforts. It typically includes a brief description of the incident, purpose, scope, priority focus areas, methodology, roles and responsibilities, schedule, and potential constraints.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Column: Vertical structural member subject to compressive forces. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Come-Along: A hand-operated winch and ratchet used to lift or pull objects. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Command and Control (C2) CBRN Response Enterprise (C2CRE): A department of Defense joint task force organizational element of 1,500 personnel focused on the overall C2 and management of the CBRN incident, as well as the intra-team communications, interagency communications, and ability to provide situational awareness to adjacent agencies and supported higher headquarters. Source: Joint Publication 3-14: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response.

Command Climate: The environment within the influence of a leader that is characterized by open communication, mutual trust and respect, freedom to raise issues and engage in debate, the recognition of clear and attainable goals, and teamwork. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Command Presence: The way in which leaders present themselves to others and that will set the tone of the command within an organization. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Command Staff: In an incident or accident management organization, the Command Staff consists of the Incident Command and the special staff positions of Public Information Officer, Safety Officer, Liaison Officer, and other positions as required, e.g., legal and medical advisor who report directly to the Incident Commander. They may have an assistant or assistants, as needed.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Commodities: Equipment and supplies used to support the disaster response and recovery mission.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Communications Specialist (CS): A position on the task force responsible for managing and maintaining all communications and communications systems for their task force. The Communications Specialist reports directly to the Logistics Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Communications Unit: An organizational unit in the Logistics Section responsible for providing communication services at an incident or an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). A Communications Unit may also be a facility (e.g., a trailer or mobile van) used to support an Incident Communications Center.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Common Operating Picture: An overview of an incident by all relevant parties that provides incident information enabling the Incident Commander/Unified Command and any supporting agencies and organizations to make effective, consistent, and timely decisions. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Companion Animals: A household pet is a domesticated animal, such as a dog, cat, bird, rabbit, rodent, or turtle that is traditionally kept in the home for pleasure rather than commercial purpose, can travel in commercial carriers, and be housed in temporary facilities.  Household pets to not include reptiles (excluding turtles), amphibians, fish, insects/arachnids, farm animals (including horses), and animals kept for racing purposes. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Company Aircraft: Aircraft owned by a corporation, private business, nonprofit organization, or union that are not engaged in public commercial aviation purposes or for hire to the general public. Source: Department of Homeland Security Management Directive System MD Number: 0020.1, Aviation Management and Safety.

 

Compartment Syndrome: A condition that occurs when pressure within a muscle compartment rises to a level that impairs circulation. Source: Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Compression: Force that tends to push the mass of a material together. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Compression Stress: A stress pressing or squeezing a structure together. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Concentrated Load: A load applied at one point or within a limited area of a structure. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Concept of Operations (CONOPS): A level of FEMA doctrine below a Manual that is an operational plan that describes the headquarters assumptions and considerations for a specific type of incident or operational area and clearly and concisely expresses how an organization intends to accomplish and how it will be done using available resources.  The document is designed to allow US&R Task Forces and other federal agencies to read and understand how a FEMA US&R response operation would be executed.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

 

Concrete: A material used in construction that is extremely versatile and relatively noncombustible. Extremely effective in compression, but weak in tension and requires the use of reinforcing steel, either rebar or high strength cable. See also: Post-tension, Poured in Place, Precast, and Posttension.  Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.  

Conditions, Actions, Needs, and Location (CANAL) Report: The information to contain within a report send up to higher authority.  The mnemonic is designed to remind the person creating the message to include the Conditions the team is operating in, the Actions being taken by the team, any Needs the team has, and the exact Location of the team. This type of report is especially helpful for verbal conversations or short text messages. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Conditioning: A canine training method that establishes the relationship between stimuli, events, and actions. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Confined Space: Any space that lacks ventilation; usually the space is larger in area than the point of entry. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Conjunctivitis: Inflammation or infection of outer membrane (conjunctiva) of eye. The conjunctiva is the clear tissue that covers the white part of the eye and inside the eyelids. Common causes include allergies bacterial/viral infections. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Consumable Property: An item of supply which is consumed in use (e.g., paint, rations, water, office supplies, cleaning and preserving materials, and fuel) or which loses its separate identity when merged into another entity (e.g., nuts and bolts, repair parts, spares, construction materials, components and assemblies, etc.). Consumables are considered to be expendable when issued and do not require formal accountability after they have been issued from a stock record account.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Contamination (General): A release of hazardous material from its source to people, animals, the environment, or equipment.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Contamination (Radioactive): The deposition of unwanted radioactive material on the surfaces of structures, areas, objects, or people where it may be external or internal. Contamination means that radioactive materials in the form of gases, liquids, or solids are released into the environment and contaminate people externally, internally, or both. An external surface of the body, such as the skin, can become contaminated, and if radioactive materials get inside the body through the lungs, gut, or wounds, the contaminant can become deposited internally.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Containerization (Containerized): Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers (also called shipping containers and International Organization for Standardization [ISO] containers) made of weathering steel. The containers have standardized dimensions. The containers can be loaded and unloaded, stacked, transported efficiently over long distances, and transferred from one mode of transport to another—container ships, rail transport flatcars, and semi-trailer trucks—without being opened. The handling system is completely mechanized so that all handling is done with cranes and special forklift trucks. All containers are numbered and tracked using computerized systems.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Contiguous United States: The 48 States and the District of Columbia; that is, the United States prior to January 3, 1959 (Alaska Statehood), wholly filling an unbroken block of territory and excluding Alaska and Hawaii. Although the official reference applies the term "conterminous," many use the word "contiguous," which is almost synonymous and better known.  Source: The US Geological Survey and U.S. Board on Geographical Names.

Continental United States: The 49 States (including Alaska, excluding Hawaii) located on the continent of North America, and the District of Columbia.  Source: The US Geological Survey and U.S. Board on Geographical Names. 

 

Contingency Plans: One of the four types of adjunct plans, created by the Planning Team that are what-if plans to deal with a potential event that may or may not happen. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Continuity of Government: A coordinated effort within the Federal Government's executive branch to ensure that National Essential Functions continue to be performed during a catastrophic emergency (as defined in National Security Presidential Directive 51/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 20).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Continuity of Operations (COOP): An effort within individual agencies to ensure they can continue to perform their Mission Essential Functions (MEFs) and Primary Mission Essential Functions (PMEFs) during a wide range of emergencies, including localized acts of nature, accidents, and technological or attack-related emergencies.  Source: Federal Continuity Directive 1

 

Continuous Beam: beam supported at both ends and at one or more interior supports. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Continuous Improvement Process: The process that helps emergency managers discover trends, learn lessons, and implement courses of action. It consists of the Discovery, Validation, Resolution, and Evaluation phases.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: A reinforcement schedule used with canines where every desired response is reinforced. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Contractor:  Any individual, partnership, corporation, agency, or other entity (other than an organization engaged in the business of insurance) performing work by contract for the Federal government, or a State or local agency.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Contracting Officer (CO): A federal employee with the authority to enter into, administer, or terminate contracts; make related determinations and findings; and appoint Contracting Officer’s Technical Representatives.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative (COR): A federal employee, designated in writing by the Contracting Officer, who is appointed to perform technical functions under the contract, including inspection and acceptance of supplies or services.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Contractor-Acquired Property:  Property acquired or otherwise provided by the contractor for performing a contract and to which the Government has title.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

 

Control of Canine: While remaining in the specified search area (according to the site parameters), the handler is able to recall or halt the canine if the canine enters, or attempts to enter, unsafe site-specific areas.  These areas (including the other search site) will include legitimate, real-world hazardous areas and will be identified in the briefing. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Cooperating Agency: Is a State or Local Government or eligible non-profit organization that has executed a Cooperative Agreement to provide Technical Specialists.  The Cooperating Agency is also referred to as the Sponsoring Agency.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Cooperative Agreement (CA): The legal instrument between DHS/FEMA and a Sponsoring Agency or Cooperating Agency that provides funds to accomplish a public purpose, as authorized by the Stafford Act.  Substantial federal involvement is anticipated during the performance of the contemplated activity.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Core Capabilities: Distinct critical elements necessary to achieve the specific mission areas of prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery as outlined in the National Preparedness Goal.  Refer to the ESF #9 – Search and Rescue Annex for the specific core capabilities   Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Cornice: A horizontal projection which crowns or finishes the eaves of a building. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Corrective Action Review: Conducted on Sponsoring Agencies that receive either a “conditional” or “non-operational” unit rating on the initial ARE.  The timing of this evaluation will vary, depending on the severity of the deficiencies and the rate of corrective action progress of the task force. This evaluation is generally conducted within 6-12 months after the initial ORE.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluations. 

 

Cost Share: The Stafford Act requires a state or tribal government to share the costs associated with requests for federal assistance pursuant to the terms provided for in the President’s declaration. Pursuant to the Stafford Act, the federal share of DFA shall not be less than 75 percent of the cost of eligible work.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Counterweight: An equivalent weight or force used to offset weight added from rigging and a load to prevent the crane from tipping; often, counterweight is the truck on a boom truck or a separate set of weights. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Course of Action (COA): An action that needs to be taken to maintain a strength, institutionalize a best practice, or address an area for improvement or mission critical issue. Initially developed as an element of an observation, COAs are finalized during an Improvement Planning Workshop and transferred into an action plan for tracking and completion.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Cowling: The plastic cover that protects the engine and inner components of the motor from water, dust, and other debris.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Crane Block: Also called hook block; heavier block to help downfall the hook when unloaded; crane blocks are equipped with cheek straps that provide added strength between the end attachments and the sheave center pins. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Crane Inspection Form (CI-1): Used as checklist to document the inspection of a crane upon arrival at the disaster site and at the beginning of each operational period. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Crane Use Order Form (CU-1): Used to determine the type and size of crane to be requested for a particular incident or rescue operation. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Cribbing: Short pieces of lumber used to support an object. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Cricothyrotomy (also called a cricothyroidotomy): An emergency procedure consisting of an incision through the skin and cricothyroid membrane to establish a patient’s airway. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum. 

 

Crawler-Mounted Hydraulic Boom Crane: A crane that combines the rapid setup of the hydraulic boom crane with the stability and mobility of a crawler crane; often used in the logging industry. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Crawler-Mounted Lattice Boom Crane: A rugged crane consisting of a lattice boom placed on a crawler carrier; need to be moved to the site by trailer and take significant time and space to assemble. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Critical Infrastructure: Assets, systems, and networks, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacitation or destruction of such assets, systems, or networks would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Critical Lift: Lift that exceeds 75% of the crane’s rated capacity or requires the use of more than one crane to successfully complete. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Critical Transportation Needs (CTN) Population: Evacuees with limited or no access to transportation who require assistance to evacuate safely. CTN populations may include, but are not limited to, homebound populations; individuals with access and functional needs, including individuals who do not speak English; individuals with household pets; unaccompanied minors; and individuals with no access to a vehicle or a ride with a friend/family. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Crush Injury: A musculoskeletal injury due to a compressive force or pressure. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Crush Syndrome: A life-threatening condition that results after the release of compressive forces applied to a muscle mass and reperfusion of the affected area. This syndrome manifests as acute renal failure, hypertension, and metabolic abnormalities (i.e., metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia). Factors that contribute to the development of crush syndrome following a crush injury include: degree of compressive force, amount of muscle mass involved, and duration of the compression. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Cueing: A verbal or physical action by a handler or helper, intentional or unintentional, or any environmental stimulus that prompts a response by the canine. Often used effectively in the initial stages of training, it can become a pitfall in later stages. Can be as obvious as visually/verbally exciting the dog or as subtle as minor body language. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Culture for Safety:  A concept in which leaders demonstrate the importance of safety in every aspect of a deployment through their actions and communications. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Curtain Fall Wall Collapse: One type of masonry wall collapse. it occurs when an exterior masonry wall drops like a falling curtain cut loose at the top. For most URM buildings there is some sort of Wall Fall Collapse, usually starting at the top. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Curtain Wall: An exterior wall supported by the structural frame of the building. Also called an infill wall. Usually has no structural value but may carry some load after a collapse. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Cushions: Cushions are waves formed along the upstream side of obstructions in the water. Also known as Pillows.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

D

Daily Cost Estimate: The Sponsoring Agency's estimate of Task Force personnel compensation, itemized fringe benefit rates and amounts including calculations, and Backfill expenditures for a 24-hour period of Activation.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Dead Load: One of the five major loads that must be considered in the design of a building (live, wind, impact, and seismic loads are the others). A Dead Load is a static or fixed load created by the structure itself and all permanent elements within. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Deck: A horizontal surface supported by floor or roof beams. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Decompensation: A functional deterioration of an organ or system. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Decontamination: The process of making any person, object, or area safe within acceptable limits by absorbing, making harmless, or removing contaminated material clinging to or around it.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Deflection: The movement of a structural element under a load. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Demobilization: The process used to plan for and implement the return of the Task Force to their original Point of Departure. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Demobilization Order: The written order from DHS/FEMA that is terminates an Alert or Activation and identifies cost and time allowances for rehabilitation.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Demobilization Plans: One of the four types of adjunct plans, written to identify resource release priorities, the demobilization process, and information pertinent to the task force. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Decontamination Station: A building or location suitably equipped and organized where personnel and material are cleansed of radiological and other hazardous or toxic contaminants.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Deployment Exercise: A dynamic exercise taking place over multiple operational periods (12+ hours); typically 24 to 72 hours. Generally, such an exercise will be outdoors in various weather environments using collapsed structures, rubble piles, realistic training scenarios (problem injects), and props (e.g. communication systems). It will also involve use of the task force’s equipment cache, transportation assets, involve search and rescue operations, and measure response times from activation until departure. It may involve setting up a Base of Operations or require use of a Type I task force in a collapsed-structure urban environment. The exercise may involve interaction with local, state, regional, federal, or military S&R or incident management authorities.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluation.

 

Defense Coordinating Officer (DCO): Individual who serves as the Department of Defense (DoD)’s single point of contact at the Joint Field Office (JFO) for requesting DoD assistance. With few exceptions, requests for Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA)requests originating at the JFO are coordinated with and processed through the DCO. The DCO may have a Defense Coordinating Element consisting of a staff and military liaison officers to facilitate coordination and support to activated Emergency Support Functions.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA): Support provided by U.S. military forces (Regular, Reserve, and National Guard), DOD civilians, contract personnel, agency, and component assets, in response to requests for assistance from civilian Federal, State, and local authorities for domestic emergencies, designated law enforcement support, and other domestic activities.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Depreciation: The systematic rational allocation and periodic accounting entries made in the financial records to reflect decreases in the value of property through age, wear, deterioration, or obsolescence over its estimated useful life.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Deputy Advisory Group Chair: A member of a System task force, recommended by the Advisory Group Chair and appointed by the US&R Branch Chief. The Deputy is a member of Senior Staff and will act in the Chair capacity during all official functions in the absence of the Advisory Group Chair.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Deputy Task Force Representative (Deputy TFR): A member of a System task force who is appointed by that task force’s TFR, in concurrence with the task force SAC, to serve as Deputy TFR. A Deputy TFR will act in the TFR capacity during all official functions in the absence of the TFR. Each TFR, in concurrence with their SAC, will determine if any Deputy TFRs will be appointed for the task force, up to a maximum of two. The Deputy TFRs are approved additional points of contact for all formal System communications with their task force.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Designated Area: The emergency or major disaster-affected portion of a state that has been determined in the President’s declaration letter to be eligible for federal assistance.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

De-tension: To remove the tension from something; e.g. – metal can be de-tensioned by applying heat slowly. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Diameter to diameter (D/d) Ratio: Diameter around which a sling is bent (D) divided by the body diameter of the sling (d); D/d ratio affects the capacity of a sling. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Direct Federal Assistance (DFA): A type of Mission Assignment which consists of goods and services provided to the affected state and local jurisdictions when they lack the capability to perform or contract for eligible emergency work. Eligibility criteria for DFA are set forth in the CFR, Title 44, Subpart H, “Public Assistance Eligibility.” The Presidential declaration of a major disaster or emergency must take place prior to the provision of DFA. DFA is subject to the applicable state cost share, usually 25 percent, but the President may waive this for a specific period. Furthermore, FEMA will not authorize this assistance until the FEMA-State.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

Directability: The ability to control and direct the canine at a distance. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Director: The Incident Command System title for individuals responsible for supervision of a Branch.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Dirty Bomb: The use of common explosives to spread radioactive materials over a targeted area. Also known as a radiation attack, a dirty bomb is not a nuclear blast, but rather an explosion with localized radioactive contamination.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Disaster Assistance Employee (DAE): A person hired to augment permanent Federal Emergency Management Agency personnel in disaster operations.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Disaster Declaration: A Presidential finding that a jurisdiction of the United States may receive Federal aid as a result of damages from a major disaster or emergency.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT): A deployable federal medical team of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) that deploys with a logistics cache of tents, generators, and supplies that supports physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, paramedics, pharmacists, and advanced clinicians working in the impacted area. The DMAT provides acute (non-surgical) triage/pre-hospital care, general emergency medical care, hospital decompression, support for patient movement, and mass prophylaxis. Source: US Department of Health and Human Services website.

 

Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team (DMORT): A deployable federal mortuary team of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) that deploys with a logistics cache of tents, generators, and supplies that supports coroners, funeral directors, mortuary officers, medical examiners, forensic specialists, dental assistants, autopsy assistants, and fingerprint specialists working in the impacted area.  The DMORT provide support to local mortuary services on location to identify victims and reunite victims with loved ones quickly and accurately.  The teams focus on the recovery, decontamination, examination, identification, and return of deceased victims. Source: US Department of Health and Human Services website. 

Discovery: Phase of the Continuous Improvement Process that involves planning for collection and collecting data. Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Disengagement: Procedures followed by a Task Force when ending operations at a specific work site or assigned area. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Disposal: The disposition of excess or surplus personal property through donation, sale, abandonment or destruction.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Disposal Condition Code: General Services Administration-established standard assigned to a property asset indicating its physical condition.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Disposition: That action taken to physically transfer property from one’s accountability.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Disposable Items: Items that are discarded when they become inoperable.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Distribution: The process of assigning custodial responsibilities to a team member, issuing the items, and executing the appropriate property accountability documentation for the temporary utilization of commodities.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Distribution Center (DC): A DC is a warehouse which provides logistics support through an Agency-wide standardized and centrally coordinated disaster supply and support system. DHS/FEMA uses DCs to store and ship supplies and equipment. DCs were created to enhance readiness and response, improve accountability, and reduce overall disaster costs.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Distribution Plan: The distribution plan is the flow of personnel, equipment, and materiel within the incident area to meet the Unified Coordination Group’s mission.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Division: The organizational level having responsibility for operations within a defined geographic area. Divisions are established when the number of resources exceeds the manageable span of control of the Section Chief. See Group.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Drive: The innate motivation for a desired object by a canine. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Dunnage: Loose wood, matting, or similar material used to separate loads that have to be lifted from the surface they’re resting on, so rigging can be placed or removed. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Drywall: A system of interior wall finish using sheets of gypsum board and taped joints. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Downstream: The direction the water is flowing.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Draw: A paddling stroke that involves the paddle being put into the water far from the paddler/vessel and pulled in toward the paddler/vessel.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Durable Property:  An item of supply which is reused until it is no longer capable of use, but not considered accountable personal property (hand tools, computer keyboards, computer mice, small office equipment, furniture, etc). Durables are tracked by informal means when issued, but do not require formal accountability after they have been issued from a stock record account.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

Dust impaction: Dense clouds of dust/particulate matter that when breathed in by a victim can combine with secretions eventually drying and resulting in an airway obstruction. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Dysrhythmia: An abnormal cardiac rhythm. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

E

Earthquake: A sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Eddies: Reversals of flow that occur around objects in the water when there’s a pressure difference between its upstream and downstream sides.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Eddy Lines: Visible lines in the water that show where the water is moving in opposite directions.

Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Edema: A condition of excessive fluid volume in the circulatory system or in tissues of the body. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Effective Leadership: The essential elements of providing purpose, direction, and motivation for working to accomplish difficult tasks under dangerous, stressful circumstances. A good operational leader will take charge, assess the situation, motivate personnel, demonstrate initiative, communicate, and manage the scene by making sound and timely decisions. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Efflorescence: Crystals of salt appearing as a white powder on concrete and masonry surfaces, usually indicating the presence of moisture. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP): A sharp pulse of radiofrequency (long wavelength) electromagnetic radiation produced when an explosion occurs near the earth’s surface or at high altitudes. The intense electric and magnetic fields can damage unprotected electronics and electronic equipment over a large area.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Embarkation Point: An intake, processing, and departure site designated for the movement of government transportation-assisted evacuees, their animals (including household pets and service and assistance animals), their luggage, and/or their durable medical equipment. Embarkation modes of transportation include air, ground, and maritime. Government transportation-assisted evacuees may be registered, tracked, assessed for issues or needs, and placed on transport for evacuation to an arrival point. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Emergency: Any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, Federal assistance is needed to supplement State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC): A congressionally ratified organization that provides form and structure to interstate mutual aid.  Through EMAC, a disaster-affected State can request and receive assistance from other member States quickly and efficiently, resolving two key issues up front: liability and reimbursement.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Emergency Operations Center (EOC): The physical location at which the coordination of information and resources to support incident management (on-scene operations) activities normally takes place. An EOC may be a temporary facility or may be located in a more central or permanently established facility, perhaps at a higher level of organization within a jurisdiction. EOCs may be organized by major functional disciplines (e.g., fire, law enforcement, medical services), by jurisdiction (e.g., Federal, State, regional, tribal, city, county), or by some combination thereof.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Emergency Procurement: Seldom used and by authorization only, this process allows for unanticipated purchases on an exigent basis. Items previously authorized under this are now purchased under the Readiness Cooperative Agreement.  The only time Emergency Procurement is authorized is if it is shown as an authorized dollar amount in Section IV of the Activation Order.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Emergency Signaling: Signals produced by warning devices on the US&R work site to address evacuation of the area, cease operations or quiet the area, and resume operations. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Emergency Support Functions (ESFs): Used by the Federal Government and many State governments as the primary mechanism at the operational level to organize and provide assistance. ESFs align categories of resources and provide strategic objectives for their use. ESFs utilize standardized resource management concepts such as typing, inventorying, and tracking to facilitate the dispatch, deployment, and recovery of resources before, during, and after an incident.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Emergency Support Function (ESF) Annexes: The NRF includes 15 ESFs, which are managed by FEMA at the national level by the National Response Coordination Center (NRCC) or at the regional level by the Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC) or Joint Field Office (JFO). The ESFs provide the structure for coordinating Federal interagency support for a Federal response to an incident. They are mechanisms for grouping functions most frequently used to provide Federal support to States and Federal-to-Federal support, both for declared disasters and emergencies under the Stafford Act and for non-Stafford Act incidents. During a response, FEMA employs ESFs as a critical mechanism to coordinate functional capabilities and resources provided by Federal departments and agencies, along with certain private- sector and nongovernmental organizations. They represent an effective way to bundle and funnel resources and capabilities to local, tribal, State, and other responders. These functions are generally coordinated by a single Department or Agency but may rely on several agencies that provide resources for each functional area.  Organizing support by ESFs provides the greatest possible access to capabilities of the Federal Government regardless of which agency has those capabilities. ESFs comprise a wide range of operational-level mechanisms to provide assistance in functional areas such as transportation, communication, public works and engineering, firefighting, mass care, housing, human services, public health and medical services, search and rescue, response to oil and hazardous materials releases, law enforcement and public safety, agriculture and natural resources, and energy.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Emergency Support Function (ESF) Coordinator: The entity with management oversight for that particular ESF. The coordinator has ongoing responsibilities throughout the preparedness, response, and recovery phases of incident management. The role of the ESF coordinator is carried out through a “unified command” approach as agreed upon collectively by the designated primary agencies and, as appropriate, support agencies.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Emergency Support Function (ESF) Primary Agency: A Federal agency with significant authorities, roles, resources, or capabilities for a particular function within an ESF. A Federal agency designated as an ESF primary agency serves as a Federal executive agent under the Federal Coordinating Officer (or Federal Resource Coordinator for non-Stafford Act incidents) to accomplish the ESF mission. The ESF #9 Primary Agencies are DHS/FEMA, DHS/Coast Guard, DoD and DOI/NPS.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Emergency Support Function (ESF) Support Agency: An entity with specific capabilities or resources that support the primary agencies in executing the mission of the ESF.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Emergency Support Function #9 (ESF #9): The primary mechanism under the Federal Response Plan through which Federal disaster assistance is provided to assist the State in meeting response requirements in an affected area. Each ESF is coordinated by a primary agency.  FEMA is the ESF-9 Coordinating Agency and one of four primary agencies for ESF #9 - Search & Rescue. Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

ESF #9 Group Supervisor (ESF #9 GS):  The ESF #9 Group Supervisor is a full time FEMA employee (typically USR Branch employee) that will be assigned to IMAT, JFOs, state and local EOCs and other locations as deemed necessary to provide coordination, SAR technical expertise, and liaison and communication linkage with deployed US&R resources. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

ESF #9 Search and Rescue Unit Leader (SARUL):  The ESF #9 SAR Unit Leader provides coordination, SAR technical expertise, and liaison and communication linkage with deployed US&R resources. An ESF #9 SAR Unit Leader may be assigned to various RRCCs in addition to the ESF #9 SAR Unit Leader position assigned to the NRCC.  When one or more resources are assigned to an ESF #9 SAR Unit, a Unit Leader will be assigned. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Enclosure Wall: Interior wall that separates a vertical opening for a stairway, elevator, duct space, etc. that connects two or more floors. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Encouraging: Occurs when the canine has already independently started the desired behavior (e.g., “Good dog” or food reward from helper inside box/barrel after dog has started barking). Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

End Item: A complete product or piece of equipment (final combination of assemblies, subassemblies, components, modules, and parts) that is designed to perform a specific operational function and is ready for its intended use (e.g., truck, radio, or generator).  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Engagement: Procedures followed by a Task Force when beginning operations at a specific work site or assigned area. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Engine Maintenance Module (EMM): Computers in modern motors that display codes via LED lights to notify users of maintenance needs. EMMs also shut down the motor automatically if it's overheating to protect it.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Enterprise Coordination Approvals Processing System (eCAPS): A Web-based software program for generating and approving Mission Assignments.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Epicenter: The point on the earth's surface vertically above the hypocenter (or focus), point in the crust where a seismic rupture begins.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Equipment: As defined by § 200.33 Equipment: Equipment means tangible personal property (including information technology systems) having a useful life of more than one year and a per-unit acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established by the non-Federal entity for financial statement purposes, or $5,000. See also §§ 200.12 Capital assets, 200.20 Computing devices, 200.48 General purpose equipment, 200.58 Information technology systems, 200.89 Special purpose equipment, and 200.94 Supplies.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual. 

 

Equipment Cache: The total equipment complement of the task force.  The Equipment Cache consists of all equipment purchased specifically for use by the task force. Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Equipment Cache List: The FEMA-issued list that identifies the maximum quantities, cost caps, and types of equipment and supplies that Sponsoring Agency and Participating Agencies may purchase and maintain with FEMA funds. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Evacuation:  The organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas, and their reception and care in safe areas.  Spontaneous evacuation occurs when residents or citizens in the threatened areas observe an incident or receive unofficial word of an actual or perceived threat and, without receiving instructions to do so, elect to evacuate the area. Their movement, means, and direction of travel are unorganized and unsupervised.  Voluntary evacuation is a warning to persons within a designated area that a threat to life and property exists or is likely to exist in the immediate future. Individuals issued this type of warning or order are not required to evacuate; however, it would be to their advantage to do so. 

A mandatory or directed evacuation is a warning to persons within the designated area that an imminent threat to life and property exists and individuals must evacuate in accordance with the instructions of local officials.  Source: FEMA Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101.

 

Evacuation Clearance Time: The estimated time to evacuate people from the time an evacuation order is given until the time when the last evacuee can either leave the evacuation zone or the remaining population must shelter in place. The calculation is based on various factors such as the type of hazard or threat, level of notice of the incident, population characteristics of the area at the time, and public behavior. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Evacuation Coordination Group: A simple mechanism to exchange evacuation and shelter-in-place information across borders. The group’s coordination encourages real-time decision making and establishes a clear and consistent message to the regional public regarding recommended actions, consistent with the National Incident Management System and Incident Command System. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Evacuation Order: A jurisdictionally initiated action for an organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of people from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas and their reception and care in safe areas. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Evacuation Zone: A defined area to which residents may be directed to evacuate, depending upon the impacts of the hazard (e.g., tides, storm intensity, path, hazardous material exposure). Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Evacuees: All persons removed or moving from areas threatened or struck by a disaster.  Source: FEMA Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101.

 

Evaluation: The phase of the Continuous Improvement Process that involves action tracking and information sharing.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Event: Any training, evaluation, deployment, or gathering that is sponsored, sanctioned, or authorized by FEMA.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Event Reconstruction: A data analysis technique that consolidates information from multiple sources into a single, fact-based account of what happened during an incident.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Exempt: Any System Member who is exempt from the requirements of the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. 201 et seq., pertaining to overtime compensation and other labor standards. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Excavator: A piece of heavy equipment used to remove debris from smaller collapse area, to clear a workspace for larger equipment, or as a lifting device. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Excepted Temporary Federal Volunteer: This title means that the team members are:  Excepted from federal competitive Civil Service; Temporary for activation until release; Federal – must be appointed into Federal Service, Federal tort, workers’ comp, and death benefits apply when activated; and Volunteer since they’re not directly paid by FEMA (Sponsoring Agencies pay System Members and FEMA reimburses the Sponsoring Agencies).  Source: 42 U.S.C 5149 Section 306(a). 

 

Expansion Joint: A flexible joint in concrete used to prevent cracking or breaking because of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS): A deployable and scalable medical field unit of the US Air Force with the primary mission to provide forward stabilization, resuscitative care, primary care, dental services, and force health protection and prepare casualties for evacuation to the next level of care. The EMEDS has three different modular and scalable designs (EMEDS HRT, EMEDS+10, and EMEDS+25) which allows the Air Force to deploy medical capabilities ranging from small teams that provide highly skilled medical care for a limited number of casualties to a large medical system that can provide specialized care to a population at risk for over 6,500 people in an impacted area to support humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.  Source: Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (AFTTP) 3-42.71. 

 

Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS) Health Response Team (HRT): The first increment of the EMEDS capability comprised of 40 Air Force medical personnel that can support a population at risk of 3,000 people.  The EMEDS HRT can deploy within 24 hours of notification, establish emergency room capability within 2 hours, operating room capability within 4 hours, and critical care capability within 6 hours.  The EMEDS HRT can reach full operational capability within 12 hours of arrival.  The primary goal is to stabilize patients and prepare them for movement to the next level of care.  The EMEDS HRT can triage and treat 350 patients per day with a surge capacity of 500.  Source: Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (AFTTP) 3-42.71.

 

EMEDS+10: The second increment of the EMEDS capability comprised of an additional 27 medical personnel for a total of 67 Air Force personnel with a combined capability of 10 medical/surgical beds that can support a population at risk of 3,000 to 5,000 people.  The EMEDS+10 can reach full operational capability within 36 hours of arrival.  For humanitarian assistance and disaster relief support, the EMEDS+10 can also be augmented by additional medical personnel, including pediatrics and OB/GYN.  The primary goal is to stabilize patients and prepare them for movement to the next level of care. Source: Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (AFTTP) 3-42.71. 

 

EMEDS+25: The third increment of the EMEDS capability comprised of an additional 30 medical personnel for a total of 97 Air Force personnel with a combined capability of 25 medical/surgical beds that can support a population at risk of 5,000 to 6,500 people.  The EMEDS+25 can reach full operational capability within 60 hours of arrival.  For humanitarian assistance and disaster relief support, the EMEDS+25 can also be augmented by additional medical personnel, including pediatrics and OB/GYN.  The primary goal is to stabilize patients and prepare them for movement to the next level of care. Source: Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (AFTTP) 3-42.71. 

Expendable Property: Property which has an expected service life of less than one year and when it is consumed, loses its identity, or becomes an integral part of another item of property. Until these items are utilized, they may be considered accountable property and will be bar-coded and tracked accordingly. If the item is considered accountable property based upon the current criteria, it will be entered into the official system of record.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Exposure (Radiation): The level of radiation flux to which a material or living tissue is exposed. The actual dose of radiation from the exposure depends on many factors including length of exposure time, the distance from the radiation source, and the amount of shielding between the radiation source and the exposed object.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Exsanguination: The extensive loss of blood due to internal or external hemorrhage. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Extensive/Grid Search Operations: A thorough, systematic search of an area or site with redundant checks and verifications using alternate search resources may be necessary to pinpoint the exact location of victims.  Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum

Exterior Wall: A wall that forms a boundary to a building and is usually exposed to the weather. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Extinction: A term used when a canine has learned, and previously reinforced behavior fades and then dies out as a result of not being reinforced. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Eye: The roughly circular area of comparatively light winds that encompasses the center of a severe tropical cyclone. The eye is either completely or partially surrounded by the eyewall cloud.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Eye Bolt: An anchor with an eye at the end for attaching an object to; used to create an immobile rigging connection point for lifting. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Eyewall/Wall Cloud: An organized band or ring of cumulonimbus clouds that surround the eye, or light-wind center of a tropical cyclone. Eyewall and wall cloud are used synonymously.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

F

Façade: The front or face of a building. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Facilitated Learning Analysis (FLA): The FLA is a non-punitive accident review process which seeks to understand the events through the process of “sensemaking”. The FLA process seeks to understand “how” it made sense to those involved, rather than “how” it makes sense in hindsight. The FLA process is focused on the lessons learned rather than determining the causal factors of an accident.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Fair Market Value:  The best estimate of the gross proceeds that would be recovered if property were sold by competitive bid.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Fallout: The process or phenomenon of the descent to the earth’s surface of particles contaminated with radioactive material from the radioactive cloud. The term is also applied in a collective sense to the contaminated particulate matter itself.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

False Indication(s): Any location incorrectly identified by the handler as a Target Odor. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Fascia: A building construction term describing a flat vertical board located at the outer face of a cornice. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Fault: A fracture along which the blocks of crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Federal Agency: Any department, independent establishment, Government corporation, or other agency of the executive branch of the Federal Government, including the U.S. Postal Service, but shall not include the American National Red Cross.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Federal Aircraft: Aircraft that an Executive Branch agency owns (i.e., holds title to) or borrows for any length of time under a bailment or equivalent loan agreement. Source: Department of Homeland Security Management Directive System MD Number: 0020.1, Aviation Management and Safety.

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): The FAA is the operating administration within DOT, which serves as the U.S. civil aviation authority (CAA) and primary air navigation services provider (ANSP). The FAA provides safety oversight of all aspects of the U.S. civil aerospace system and exercises plenary authority over the Nation’s airspace. In its capacity as the U.S. ANSP, the FAA is also an operational entity that provides air traffic control and related services that enable a safe and efficient aerospace system. The FAA fulfills these roles before, during, and after disasters.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

FAA Airspace Access Response Cell (AARC): The FAA’s disaster response-specific functions include the operation of its AARC, which, as needed, vets and manages the flow of flights into temporary flight restrictions and designated civil or joint-use airports being used for response and recovery air missions. The AARC frequently collaborates closely with the RAMCC.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO): The official appointed by the President to execute Stafford Act authorities, including the commitment of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) resources and mission assignment of other Federal departments or agencies. In all cases, the FCO represents the FEMA Administrator in the field to discharge all FEMA responsibilities for the response and recovery efforts underway. For Stafford Act events, the FCO is the primary Federal representative with whom the State Coordinating Officer and other State, Tribal, Territorial, and local response officials will interface with to determine the most urgent needs and set objectives for an effective response in collaboration with the Unified Coordination Group.  The FCO is responsible for coordinating the timely delivery of Federal disaster assistance resources and programs to the affected State and local governments, individual victims, and the private sector. The FCO issues Mission Assignments through the FEMA support team at the NRCC, RRCC, or JFO.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): Agency with primary responsibility for ESF #9 (Urban Search and Rescue). Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Federal Excess Property: Any Federal personal property under the control of a Federal agency that the agency head or a designee determines is not required for its needs or for the discharge of its responsibilities.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Federally Issued Property: Any federal property issued by FEMA to the Sponsoring Agency that must be accounted for and inventoried according to federal regulations in accordance with relevant US&R Program Directives.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Federal Operations Support (FOS): A type of Mission Assignment that allows for the support of another federal agency to support federal operations.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Federal Search and Rescue Coordination Group (FSARCG): The FSARCG is a coordinating group in which one member from each of the four ESF #9 primary agencies (FEMA, USCG, DOI/NPS, and DoD) is activated and deployed to plan and coordinate a Federal SAR response in support of the RRCC/IMAT and the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Federal Staging Area (FSA): While similar to an ISB and SSA, an FSA is an incident facility where deployed equipment and commodities are positioned, generally in anticipation of or in response to an incident. FSAs are generally created to support a single incident or region.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR): Serves to govern and guide Federal agencies in prescribing regulations, policies, procedures, and delegations of authority pertaining to the management of property, records, and other programs and activities of the type administered by the General Services administration. The FPMR is published in the Federal Register in both loose leaf and electronic form, and in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR, Title 41 and 42) in cumulative form. Also referred to as the Federal Management Regulations (FMR). The FPMR is being merged with the FMR and will ultimately become obsolete.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Federal Recipient: Any executive agency or any establishment in the legislative or judicial branch of the government (except the Houses of Congress, the Architect of the Capitol, and any activities under their direction).  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Feedback Form/Survey: A series of questions sent to a pre-defined group of respondents after an incident or exercise to collect information on what happened and why.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

FEMA Authorized Training: Training that does not utilize curriculum developed by the FEMA US&R System, but the course has been determined by a task force to have some training benefit that furthers a member’s knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform the duties outlined in the FEMA US&R Position Descriptions (e.g., NWCG courses). Such training may be hosted, sponsored, and provided by an entity other than FEMA; and FEMA exerts no direct control of the curriculum or its delivery.   Source: US&R Training Program Administration Manual.

 

FEMA Equivalent Training: Training that is non‐system training officially determined by FEMA to be functionally equivalent to training delivered as FEMA US&R Sponsored training or task forces training at the local level.  This training incorporates approved FEMA US&R System standard curriculum and procedures and is hosted, sponsored, provided, and directly controlled by an entity other than FEMA.  Source: US&R Training Program Administration Manual.

 

FEMA International Affairs Division (IAD): The division within FEMA that manages the International Assistance Concept of Operations (IAS CONOPS) and is responsible to engage with the international emergency management community.  FEMA IAD manage engagements with international emergency management partners under the authority of existing Agreements, and Presidential Directives.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex I – International US&R Assistance CONOPS.  

 

FEMA Region: The geographical subdivision of the United States through which FEMA administers its programs, and which is the primary contact for any disaster occurring within that Region. A Regional Director administers each region.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

FEMA-State Agreement or FEMA Tribal/Territorial Agreement: An agreement between FEMA and the state or a tribe executed upon the declaration of a major disaster or an emergency, listing the understandings, commitments, and conditions for assistance under which FEMA will proved disaster assistance. The agreement imposes binding obligations on FEMA, states, their local governments, and private nonprofit organizations within the states in the form of conditions for assistance, which are legally enforceable. No FEMA funding or DFA by Mission Assignment will be authorized or provided until a signed agreement is in place, except where necessary to provide essential emergency services or housing assistance.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

FEMA Sponsored Training:  Training or exercise that is directed, controlled, and funded by FEMA and directly controlled by FEMA US&R through contract, interagency agreement, Cooperative Agreement, or other method of acquisition and meets a number of other criteria.  Source: US&R Training Program Administration Manual.

 

FEMA Sanctioned Training: Training or exercise that utilizes approved FEMA US&R System standard curriculum and procedures and is hosted, sponsored, provided, and directly controlled by a National US&R Task Force Sponsoring Agency, and meets a number of other criteria.   Source: US&R Training Program Administration Manual.

 

FEMA Task Force Search and Rescue Marking System: Distinct markings made with international orange spray paint near a collapsed structure's most accessible point of entry.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Ferry Angles: A boat maneuvering technique used to traverse perpendicular to the current (or dominant force). The hull and motor of the boat both must be angled forward as the current reacts on the upstream side. Exact angle depends on the current speed.   Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Field Coordination Support Section (FCSS):  The FCSS is located within the Emergency Services Branch (ESB) of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Geneva and functions as the INSARAG Secretariat as selected by the United Nations to facilitate international participation and cooperation.  Source: INSARAG website.

 

Field Establishment: An organizational unit or element located outside of the FEMA headquarters’ immediate, geographical area, such as the Mobile Emergency Response Support (MERS) Detachments, Joint Field Offices, Special Facility, National Emergency Training Center, and the Strategic Storage Areas.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Field Repairs: Temporary fixes that can be completed in the field to allow equipment to perform for the remainder of an operational period. Examples include repairing damage to a raft using flex tape or another mechanical patch.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Filtering Face Piece: A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the face piece or with the entire face piece composed of the filtering medium.  Also referred to as a dust mask.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.  

Final Response: A behavior that a canine has been trained to exhibit in the presence of a target odor. Also known as a trained final response. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Finance/Administration Section: (1) Incident Command: Section responsible for all administrative and financial considerations surrounding an incident.  (2) Joint Field Office (JFO): Section responsible for the financial management, monitoring, and tracking of all Federal costs relating to the incident and the functioning of the JFO while adhering to all Federal laws and regulations.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Fire Cut Beam: A gravity support beam end designed to release itself from the masonry wall during collapse. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Fire Wall: A wall of sufficient durability and stability to withstand the effects of the most severe anticipated fire exposure. Openings in the wall, if allowed, must be protected. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Fit Factor: A quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.   Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.  

 

Fit Test: The use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.   Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.  

Five Line Brief: The five essential elements of a helicopter rescue pickup in as brief of a format as possible while still providing the aircrew the information they need to plan for the rescue. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Fixed Reinforcement Schedule: Schedule in which correct responses by the canine are reinforced after a fixed period of time (interval) or after a fixed number of responses (ratio). Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Flashing: Sheet metal used in roof and wall construction to keep water out. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Flash Flood: A rapid and extreme flow of high water into a normally dry area, or a rapid water level rise in a stream or creek above a predetermined flood level, beginning within six hours of the causative event (e.g., intense rainfall, dam failure, ice jam). However, the actual time threshold may vary in different parts of the country. Ongoing flooding can intensify to flash flooding in cases where intense rainfall results in a rapid surge of rising flood waters.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Flash Flood Warning: Issued to inform the public, emergency management, and other cooperating agencies that flash flooding is in progress, imminent, or highly likely.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Flash Flood Watch: Issued to indicate current or developing hydrologic conditions that are favorable for flash flooding in and close to the watch area, but the occurrence is neither certain or imminent.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Flemish Eye: A type of eye splice where the strands of the end of a wire rope are unwound a certain distance and plaited back into the wire rope, forming an eye; splice is secured using a mechanical splice. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Flip Lines: Ropes tied to a vessel that can be used to right a boat after it flips in the water.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Flood: Any high flow, overflow, or inundation by water which causes or threatens damage.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Flood Basin Search: Search involving few permanent landmarks and a large area including lakes or reservoirs.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Floodwater: Water with a lack of features that has escaped its historical course.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Flood Warning (FLW): In hydrologic terms, a release by the NWS to inform the public of flooding along larger streams in which there is a serious threat to life or property. A flood warning will usually contain river stage (level) forecasts.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Flood Watch: Issued to inform the public and cooperating agencies that current and developing hydrometeorological conditions are such that there is a threat of flooding, but the occurrence is neither certain nor imminent.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Follow-Through: An effective leadership quality in which a Task Force Leader will follow through on discussions, decisions, directives, feedback, and schedules.  This follow-through legitimizes the Task Force Leader’s position and authority. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Follow-Up: An effective leadership quality related to accomplishing the established incident objectives.  Task Force Leader’s frequent follow-up and evaluation of success or impediment is critical to determine the progress toward the specified goals and objectives.  Follow-up and evaluation is about the task force effectiveness as a whole, not an individual team member’s effort.   Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Food Drive: Desire to get food. Desire is not always related to hunger or the biological need for food. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Food Reward: Something edible that is of high value to the canine. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Footing: The part of a building which rests on the bearing soil and is wider than the foundation wall. Also the base for a column. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Force Multipliers: Additional resources and personnel used to increase the effectiveness of a task force in large-scale disasters.  Examples of force multipliers include: local technical rescue personnel, regional and state search and rescue teams, EMAC resources, Title 32 (National Guard) and Title 10 (Active Duty) military units. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Forward Stroke: A paddling stroke that involves the paddle being put into the water in front of the paddler and pulled backwards. This propels the vessel forward.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Foundational Search Management Tasks (FSMT): The thirteen critical steps to the Search Planning Management process. These steps are a cyclical process that can be used at all levels of a search planning and management response. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) Live Find or Human Remains Detection: An assessment of the basic disaster search skills that is used to determine the team’s next step in the evaluation process.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Foundational Search Management Tasks (FSMT): The thirteen critical steps to the Search Planning Management process.  These steps are a cyclical process that can be used at all levels of a search planning and management response. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Frowning Holes: Areas where a strong flow reversal occurs from side to side.  Also called Open Holes. Exit from a frowning/open hole is possible beneath the surface. Exit from the sides of a frowning hole is much more difficult than exiting from the sides of a smiling hole.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Full Access Search Site: A search site that is completely accessible to the handler and may access from any point.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Function: The five major activities in the Incident Command System: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. A sixth function, Intelligence/Investigations, may be established, if required, to meet incident management needs. The term function is also used when describing the activity involved (e.g., the planning function).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Functional Groups: The Five Functional Groups (Command/IST, Operations, Logistics, Planning and Finance/Admin) are comprised of Subgroup Leaders and other technical experts.  Functional Group members are in either an active or reserve status.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Functional Group Leader (FGL): Part of the Advisory Support Group and responsible for addressing issues of consequence within their functional areas and those assigned by the Advisory Group.  The FGL acts as an advocate for their Subgroups, provides regular guidance and tasking as well as brings forward recommendations from Subgroups assigned to them.   Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Fund Code: A 16-digit FEMA financial accounting code.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Furring: Wood strips fastened to a wall, floor, or ceiling for the purpose of attaching covering material. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

G

Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus Syndrome: Stomach obstruction due to twisting of the stomach, fatal if untreated. It is common canine surgical emergency. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

General Ledger:  A fiscal record which is comprised of several control accounts that reflects the dollar value of capitalized personal property on hand.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

General Memorandum: Established by the US&R System in December 2010, the General Memorandum is designed to provide a method to track written communication between the US&R Program Office and the Sponsoring Agency’s, Task Force Leaders, and System members.  The General Memo is used for messages and announcements for system wide distribution, such as class and meeting announcements, Advisory Organization activities, Incident Support Team activities, or application announcements.  FEMA US&R Program Directive 2020-008.

 

General Staff: A group of incident management personnel organized according to function and reporting to the Incident Commander. The General Staff normally consists of the Operations Section Chief, Planning Section Chief, Logistics Section Chief, and Finance/Administration Section Chief.  An Intelligence/Investigations Chief may be established, if required, to meet incident management needs.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

General Training Requirements: The list of training courses that all members of the FEMA National US&R Response System must completed in accordance with Chapter 2 of Annex E: Position Descriptions.   Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Geographic Information System (GIS): A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system that analyzes and displays geographically referenced information. It uses data that is attached to a unique location. Source: USGS

Girder: A structural element that supports a floor or roof beam. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Global Positioning System (GPS): Devices using satellites to calculate their location, frequently paired with other information technology to provide routes from one point to another. Source: FEMA US&R Technical Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Globe Rupture: A common term used to describe all types of open globe injuries of the eye whether due to blunt or penetrating trauma resulting in a full thickness disruption of the sclerae or cornea. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Go Out: At handler’s direction, the canine will move away from the handler in the direction indicated by the handler. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Goal: Step in the canine training cycle that identifies desired behaviors to be learned. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Governor: The chief executive of any State.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Government Aircraft: Federal aircraft that are operated for the exclusive use of an Executive Branch agency. Government aircraft include commercial aircraft hired for commercial aviation services. Source: Department of Homeland Security Management Directive System MD Number: 0020.1, Aviation Management and Safety. 

Government Bill of Lading: A government document used to procure and identify freight and cargo transportation and required services from commercial carriers for the movement of material at government expense.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Government-Furnished Property (GFP): Property in the possession of, or directly acquired by, the Government, which has title, and subsequently made available to the contractor in the performance of a contract. GFP is only allowable if stated in the SOW.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Grants Program Directorate (GPD): The FEMA organization with legal authority to bind FEMA contractually by awarding and amending Cooperative Agreements.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Grants Assistance Officer: The FEMA full-time employee within GPD who has legal authority to bind FEMA contractually by awarding and amending Cooperative Agreements.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Grant Manager: The person employed by the Sponsoring Agency to administer the fiscal responsibilities of the cooperative agreements.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Grapple: An excavator attachment used to load crushed material into trucks. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Grip Hoist: A hand-operated hoist that uses a length of wire rope that is pulled through two sets of gripping jaws to lift, pull, and place loads across great distances. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Grommet Sling: Composed of loops of wire rope; can be manufactured to shorter overall lengths than standard slings and are useful in situations calling for tight rigging. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Gross Capacity: What the load chart says the crane can lift; includes the net capacity plus all attachments, rigging components, blocks, and hooks. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Gross Load: Net load plus all rigging components, hooks, blocks, and wires. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Gross Negligence: An extreme departure from the course of action to be expected of a reasonably prudent person (all circumstances being considered) accompanied by a reckless, deliberate, or wanton disregard for the foreseeable consequences of that act.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Group: An organizational subdivision established to divide the incident management structure into functional areas of operation. Groups are composed of resources assembled to perform a special function not necessarily within a single geographic division. See Division. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Guide: A level of FEMA doctrine below a Manual that addresses a singular concept, capability or function referenced or defined in a manual above it. Provides operational details for a specific or complex mission or requirement to explain additional "how to" information.  Requires a manual.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

 

Guidestick: A paddle with a T handle and standard-type shaft. However, the guidestick's shaft is longer than a standard paddle. The guidestick's blade is a longer version of the standard blade shape as well, allowing for greater maneuvering force.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Gunwales: The top side of the walls of a boat.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Gusset Plate: A metal fastener in the form of a flat plate used to connect structural members. (also the plywood gusset plate connections used for US&R shoring). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

H

Half-Life: The time required for the activity of a given radioactive element to decrease to half of its initial value due to radioactive decay. The physical half-life is a characteristic property of each radioactive element and is independent of its amount or physical form. The effective or biological half-life of a given isotope in the body is the time in which the quantity in the body decreases to half because of both radioactive decay and biological elimination.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Handbook: A level of FEMA doctrine below a Manual that is a portable reference guide for a compilation of procedures. Uses a flexible format based upon intended function and can be a compilation of procedures or concepts.  Requires a manual above it and some may have a guide as well.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

Handler: Person for whom the canine is working. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Hasty Search: A fast paced and methodical search of the assigned area of operation in an attempt to detect/locate victims that are in immediate need of evacuation from harm.  Also referred to as a Rapid Search.  This type of search can be accomplished by air, waterborne craft, or vehicles.  The size and make up of Hasty Search teams are incident driven and flexible.  This may be accomplished simultaneously with Recon and if survivors are detected/located and cannot be easily evacuated, their location(s) should be documented and marked using the standard US&R marking system unless otherwise required by the AHJ/IC or Rules of Engagement (ROE).  Additional resources should be called to conduct extrication and/or evacuation.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.

 

Haystacks: A swiftwater condition that are outflows downstream of obstructions.  Also known as Wave Trains.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Hazards, Animal Hazard: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating an animal hazard related to aggression, location, or disease encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Hazards, Fire Incident: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating a general fire occurrence encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Hazards, Hazardous Material Incident: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating a nuclear, biological, or chemical incident encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Hazards, Flood/Water Level: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating the current location of water line encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Hazards, Route Blocked: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating an inaccessible route by land or water encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Hazardous Materials Equipment Push Package (HEPP):  A specialized US&R equipment cache designed to supplement task force operations when operating in contaminated environments.  One HEPP will provide enough additional personnel protective equipment to allow one task force to extend operations in a contaminated environment from one 12-hour period to one 36-hour period.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment. 

 

Hazardous Material: Any material that is flammable, corrosive, an oxidizing agent, explosive, toxic, poisonous, radioactive, nuclear, unduly magnetic, or chemical agent, biological research material, compressed gas, or any other material that, because of its quantity, properties, or packaging, may endanger life or property.  For the purposes of ESF #1, hazardous material is a substance or material, including a hazardous substance that has been determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, and which has been so designated (See reference (h)). For the purposes of ESF #10 and the Oil and Hazardous Materials Incident Annex, the term is intended to mean hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants as defined by the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Hazardous Materials Team Manager (HTM): A position on the task force responsible for managing the Hazmat functions of the task force and supervising the Hazardous Materials Specialists of the task force. The Hazardous Materials Team Manager reports directly to the Task Force Leader.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Hazardous Materials Specialist (HMS): A position on the task force responsible for performing the various hazardous materials functions for the task force during incident operations. The Hazardous Materials Specialist reports directly to the Hazardous Materials Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Hazardous Property:  Personal property components or material that are deemed hazardous, chemical substances or mixtures, or hazardous waste as defined under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, or the Toxic Substances Control Act as well as weapons, munitions, explosives.  Such items are recognized by material safety data sheets or hazardous material information sheets.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Header Beam: A support used to reinforce an opening in the floor of a wood frame, ordinary, or heavy timber building. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): A federal law that requires the creation of national standards to protect sensitive health information from being disclosed without the patients consent or knowledge. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Heat-related Illness: A condition in which an individual’s body temperature is elevated beyond normal range due to failed thermoregulation. This term encompasses heat cramps, heat edema, heat syncope and heat stroke. Also known as Hyperthermia. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Heavy Equipment and Rigging Specialist (HERS): A position on the task force responsible for performing various assessments and construction-related liaison for the task force during incident operations. The Heavy Equipment and Rigging Specialist reports directly to the Rescue Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Helical Flow: The spiraling motion of water between the main current (laminar flow) and the shore.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Helicopter Landing Site: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating an appropriate site for a helicopter landing zone per the NWCG Standards for Helicopter Operations Interagency Guidelines.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

Helper: Person(s) who assists the handler when training the canine. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Hemothorax: An accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity, between the parietal and visceral pleura, usually the result of trauma. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

H-Hour: H-hour is a hurricane planning factor used to develop plans for pre- hurricane actions and differs from hurricane landfall in that it is based on the onset of tropical storm force winds, not the arrival of the hurricane eye wall ashore. H-Hour provides a determination for when tropical storm force winds arrive ashore, normally requiring the reduction or cessation of operations due to bridge closures, crosswind limits for flight operations, sheltering requirements, and other safety related considerations. Based on the size and intensity of a hurricane, there can be an 8 to 16 hour time difference between H- hour and hurricane landfall.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter: A filter that is a least 99.97% efficient in removing monodisperse particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. The equivalent NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate filters are the N100, R100 and P100 filters.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.  

 

Hinged Loads: Objects requiring lifting and moving which are not entirely rigid and may bend or flex in such a way that adjustable rigging is needed to capture these unsupported pieces to prevent them from breaking off. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Hitch: The way a sling is fastened to or around a load; three main types of hitches are vertical, choker, and basket. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Hoist: Device used for lifting or lowering a load that may be operated manually, electrically, or hydraulically; common types of hoists include the come-along, chain, and grip. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Hollow Wall: A wall of two parallel wythes which are separated by an air space between them, but lack ties to hold the wythes together. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Hook: Device for grabbing and lifting loads; usually has a safety latch to prevent the disengagement of the lifting sling. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Horizontal Angle: Angle formed between the top of the load and sling leg; as the horizontal angle decreases, forces on that leg of the sling increase. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Host Jurisdiction: Jurisdictions tasked as destination locations for evacuees with government-coordinated or -sponsored evacuation sites. These jurisdictions “host” evacuees requiring shelter. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Hosting Agency: A task force which sponsors a canine event in conjunction with FEMA.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Hot Wash: A facilitated group discussion held soon after an incident or exercise to gather initial thoughts on what worked well, what needs improvement, and potential recommendations.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Hourly Log: Method of documenting usage of the various pieces of heavy equipment operating at a disaster site. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Household Pet: According to FEMA Disaster Assistance Policy 9253.19, “[a] domesticated animal, such as a dog, cat, bird, rabbit, rodent, or turtle, that is traditionally kept in the home for pleasure rather than for commercial purposes, can travel in commercial carriers, and be housed in temporary facilities. Household pets do not include reptiles (except turtles), amphibians, fish, insects/arachnids, farm animals (including horses), and animals kept for racing purposes.” This definition is used by FEMA to determine assistance that FEMA will reimburse and is the definition used in the production of this Guide. Individual jurisdictions may have different definitions based on other criteria.  Source: FEMA Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101.

 

Hovering: A boat maneuvering technique used to maintain position in the current. This would be done with a positive attitude and just enough propulsion to offset the current.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Hull: The bottom of a vessel that goes into the water.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Hurricane/Typhoon: A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind (using the U.S. 1-minute average) is 64 kt (74 mph or 119 km/hr) or more. The term hurricane is used for Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones east of the International Dateline to the Greenwich Meridian. The term typhoon is used for Pacific tropical cyclones north of the Equator west of the International Dateline.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Human Interaction, Assisted: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating materials assistance provided to residents during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Evacuated: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating survivors transported to collection point or out of harm’s way during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Rescued: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating technical rescue that required moving survivor to a safe location during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Shelter In Place: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating survivors have chosen to remain at their current location during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Victim Detected: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating a potential live survivor detected (including canine alert or intelligence) during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Victim Confirmed: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating a confirmed live survivor detected (visual, audible, physical confirmation) during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Human Remains Detected: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating potential human remains detected (including canine alert or intelligence) during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Human Remains Confirmed: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating confirmed human remains during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Human Interaction, Human Remains Removed: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating human remains removed from specific location during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

Human Remains (HR):  The body of a deceased person or part of a body or limb that has been removed from a living person, including the body, part of a body, or limb in any stage of decomposition. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Human Remains Detection (HRD):   The term used to describe a canine trained in the process of detecting and locating human remains. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Hunt Drive: Canine’s desire to search for something that is not visible or audible, relying on his/her sense of smell. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Hurricane Season: The portion of the year having a relatively high incidence of hurricanes. The hurricane season in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico runs from June 1 to November 30. The hurricane season in the Eastern Pacific basin runs from May 15 to November 30. The hurricane season in the Central Pacific basin runs from June 1 to November 30.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Hurricane Warning: An announcement that hurricane conditions (sustained winds of 74 mph or higher) are expected somewhere within the specified coastal area. Because hurricane preparedness activities become difficult once winds reach tropical storm force, the hurricane warning is issued 36 hours in advance of the anticipated onset of tropical-storm- force winds.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Hurricane Watch: An announcement that hurricane conditions (sustained winds of 74 mph or higher) are possible within the specified coastal area. Because hurricane preparedness activities become difficult once winds reach tropical storm force, the hurricane watch is issued 48 hours in advance of the anticipated onset of tropical-storm-force winds.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Hydraulics: Water features occurring when water pours over a submerged object, making a low-pressure area on the downstream side of the object which draws water back toward the object. These are also known as Keepers, Stoppers, or Maytags.   Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Hydraulic Breaker: An excavator attachment used to break concrete debris into smaller chunks. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Hydraulic Shoring: Trench shores or jacks with movable parts that are operated by the action of hydraulic fluid. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Hydraulic Truck Crane: Crane that consists of a hydraulic boom and is designed to move swiftly over the highway on a special carrier; setup time reduced since the telescoping hydraulic boom is transported as part of the crane/carrier assembly; may be operated on rubber tires, but at a significantly reduced capacity. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Hyperkalemia: Refers to a blood potassium level higher than normal (above 5.0 millimolarity [mM]); a common cause is acute kidney failure. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Hypesthesia: The decreased sensitivity to stimuli, particularly to touch. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Hypothermia:  A body core temperature below 350 C or 950 F in humans. Symptoms depend on temperature and categorize into mild, moderate or severe. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Hypoperfusion: The decreased blood flow through vital organs; if prolonged, may result in cellular dysfunction and/or death. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Hypovolemia: The decreased volume of circulating blood (plasma) in the body. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Hypovolemic Shock: Shock caused by a decrease in circulating volume (e.g., hemorrhage, vomiting, and diarrhea). Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

I

Ileus: A partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Impact Load: A sudden load applied to a structure suddenly, such as a shock wave or a vibrating load. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Implement: Step in the canine training cycle that involves conducting the training using the identified plan to reach the stated goal. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Improvement Planning Workshop (IPW): A workshop that brings together multiple stakeholders to facilitate the development, adoption and, implementation of courses of action. The workshop should include those entities responsible for taking action, such as a program office.   Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Improvised Nuclear Device (IND): An illicit nuclear weapon that is bought, stolen, or otherwise obtained from a nuclear State, or a weapon fabricated by a terrorist group from illegally obtained fissile nuclear weapons material and produces a nuclear explosion. The nuclear yield achieved by an IND produces extreme heat, powerful shockwaves, and prompt radiation that would be acutely lethal for a significant distance. An IND also produces radioactive fallout, which may spread and deposit over very large areas. If a nuclear yield is not achieved, the result would likely resemble an RDD in which fissile weapons material was utilized.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident: An occurrence, natural or manmade, that requires a response to protect life or property. Incidents can, for example, include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident Action Plan (IAP): An oral or written plan containing general objectives reflecting the overall strategy for managing an incident. It may include the identification of operational important information for management of the incident during one or more operational periods, resources and assignments. It may also include attachments that provide direction and important information for management of the incident during one or more operational periods.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident Command: The Incident Command System organizational element responsible for overall management of the incident and consisting of the Incident Commander (either single or unified command structure) and any assigned supporting staff.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident Command Post (ICP): The ICP is the primary field location where tactical‐level, on‐scene incident command functions are performed.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Incident Commander (IC): The individual responsible for all incident activities, including the development of strategies and tactics and the ordering and release of resources. The IC has overall authority and responsibility for conducting incident operations and is responsible for the management of all incident operations at the incident site.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident Command System (ICS): A standardized on-scene emergency management construct specifically designed to provide an integrated organizational structure that reflects the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. ICS is the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure, designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents. It is used for all kinds of emergencies and is applicable to small as well as large and complex incidents. ICS is used by various jurisdictions and functional agencies, both public and private, to organize field-level incident management operations.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident Daily Briefing Form: A form for conducting planning sessions and briefings during the course of a mission.  Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Incident Management: The broad spectrum of activities and organizations providing effective and efficient operations, coordination, and support applied at all levels of government, utilizing both governmental and nongovernmental resources to plan for, respond to, and recover from an incident, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident Management Assistance Team (IMAT): FEMA’s IMATs are mobile, highly trained teams of qualified and experienced federal emergency management personnel that are deployed by FEMA to lead federal disaster response and recovery efforts. FEMA created the IMATs to expand upon and integrate the roles and responsibilities of a previous set of response teams at the national and regional levels.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Incident Objectives: Statements of guidance and direction needed to select appropriate strategy(s) and the tactical direction of resources. Incident objectives are based on realistic expectations of what can be accomplished when all allocated resources have been effectively deployed. Incident objectives must be achievable and measurable, yet flexible enough to allow strategic and tactical alternatives.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Incident Support (IS): Incident support is the coordination of all federal resources that support incident response, recovery, logistics, and mitigation. Responsibilities include the deployment of national-level assets, support of national objectives and programs affected during the disaster, and support of incident operations with resources, expertise, information, and guidance.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Incident Support Base (ISB): An ISB is a temporary satellite facility that is established at a strategic location (such as a military installation) to receive, process, and support response resources, including US&R resources, during the mobilization and demobilization phases of a response.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Incident Support Team (IST): A group of highly skilled specialists available for rapid deployment to a disaster area to provide Urban Search and Rescue related management and coordination at the Disaster Field Office, technical assistance, support, and advice about Urban Search and Rescue issues to public officials.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Individuals with Access and Functional Needs: Individuals having access and functional needs may include, but are not limited to, people with disabilities, older adults, and populations having LEP, limited access to transportation, and/or limited access to financial resources to prepare for, respond to, and recover from the emergency. Such needs are met by providing physical, programmatic, and effective communication access to the whole community by accommodating individual requirements through universal accessibility and/or specific actions or modifications. This includes assistance, accommodation, or modification for mobility, communication, transportation, safety, health maintenance, etc.; due to any situation (temporary or permanent) that limits an individual’s ability to act in an emergency. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Individuals with a Disability: Individual who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities (an “actual disability”), or a record of a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity (“record of”), or an actual or perceived impairment, whether or not the impairment limits or is perceived to limit a major life activity, that is not both transitory and minor (“regarded as”). Individuals with disabilities have civil rights protections that may not be waived under any circumstances, including throughout emergencies and disasters. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Information Gathering: A continuous process to get the most reliable information as quickly as possible to inform decision making. This can be accomplished by talking with local responders and officials, conducting initial size up, and conducting reconnaissance.   Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Initial Operations Briefing: The first briefing the Task Force Leader will receive upon arriving at the incident from either the IST Leader or the AHJ.  The briefing is when the TFL learns about the current situation, planned actions and the incident objectives, priorities, and expectations. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Initial Size Up: The formal process for site assessment prior to search and rescue operation.  The task force will gather its own information and validates locally provided size-up information. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

International Marking System: An INSARAG standardized format of marking assessed and searched sites.  INSARAG US&R teams are required to use the INSARAG marking, signaling, and identification system to communicate assessment and rescue results with other actors and to ensure standardized communication at the site. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

IST Aviation Branch Director (ABD): A position on the IST primarily responsible for preparing the air operations portion of the IST Operating Plan and supporting and managing helicopter operations for the IST. The plan will reflect any agency restrictions that impact the operational capability or utilization of assigned aviation assets.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Incident Support Team Base of Operations (BoO): The operational area established by an IST, which includes the base and camp for the IST. It is where US&R response activities are coordinated. When possible, combining IST and task force BoOs may be desirable to achieve more effective coordination and logistical support. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

IST Communications Unit Leader (COML): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Logistics Chief, and is responsible for managing, and maintaining, all communications and communications systems for the Incident Support Team (and ESF #9), and to provide support to Task Force Communications Units. Supervises the Deputy Incident Support Team Communications Unit Leader and assigned Communications Specialists acting as Incident Support Team Radio Operators.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

IST Demobilization Unit Leader (DMOB): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Planning Section Chief and is responsible for developing and implementing the demobilization plan for all ESF #9 resources.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

IST Division/Group Supervisor (DIVS): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Operations Section Chief or IST Branch Director and is responsible for implementation of assigned portions of the IST Operational Action Plan, assignment of resources within the Division/Group, and reporting operational progress and resource status.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (VET): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Medical Officer (and as required to the IST Leader) and has overall responsibility for the management and supervision of the medical care and evaluations of all task force canines. The IST DVM reports directly to the IST Medical Officer or his/her deputy.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Documentation Unit Leader (DOCL): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Planning Section Chief and is responsible for maintaining accurate and complete documentation of ESF #9 response operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Facilities Unit Leader (FACL): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Logistics Section Chief and is primarily responsible for the layout, activation, set up, maintenance and demobilization of IST incident facilities (e.g., task force base of operations, base camp, and staging areas) as well as security services required to support IST/ESF #9 facilities.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Field Observer (FOB): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Situation Unit Leader and is assigned to the field to work withOperations Branch Director or Division Supervisor to collect status information from personal observations and to expedite the exchange ofinformation between the Operations Section and Planning Section.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Ground Support Unit Leader (GSUL): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Logistics Section Chief and coordinates the disaster area transportation of supplies, equipment, and personnel for ESF #9 resources.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Specialist (HMS): A position on the IST that reports to the Plans Section Chief or to the IST position assigned. This individual ensures that US&R field operations are conducted in accordance with nationally recognized safe practices for the management of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) and/or hazardous materials scenes. The Hazmat Technical Specialist reviews information and provides hazard and risk assessment recommendations to IST and task force personnel.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Public Information Officer (PIO): A position on the IST that reports directly to the IST Leader. The Information Officer is responsible for interfacing with the public, media, and other agencies with incident-related information requirements. The IOF develops accurate and complete information on the incident's cause, size, and current situation; resources committed; and other matters of general interest for both internal and external consumption, thus ensuring the FEMA mission is accurately communicated.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Leader (ISTL): A position on the IST that reports to the ESF #9 Group Supervisor (and as required to the US&R Branch Chief) and manages the IST personnel and functions. The IST Leader also manages the IST and task force operational activities to ensure that Federal, state, and local ESF #9 objectives are achieved and provides connectivity between the IST and state and local incident management operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Liaison Officer – Type 1 (LOFR1): A position on the IST that serves as the representative responsible to communicate and coordinate activities between the FEMA US&R IST and other disaster response entities. The entities might include an Incident Management Assistance Team (IMAT), the Regional Response Coordination Centers (RRCCs), State Emergency ManagementAgencies, etc. The IST Liaison Officer – Type 1 also monitors incident operations to identify current or potential inter-organizational problems that could affect the ESF #9 resources. Only one Liaison Officer will be assigned to an IST. The Liaison Officer may have Assistant Liaison Officers as deemed necessary.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Liaison Officer - Type 2 (LOFR2): A position on the IST that is responsible to communicate and coordinate activities between the FEMA US&R IST and other disaster response organizations and private sector organizations. The LOFR2 provides technical assistance to local Incident Management Teams (IMTs), and other local officials in making decision regarding the appropriate use of ESF #9 resources required or assigned to the incident. In most circumstances, the IST Liaison Officer - Type 2 serves as an Assistant Liaison Officer and reports to the IST Liaison Officer – Type 1.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Logistics Section Chief (LSC): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Leader and provides facilities, services, equipment, and supplies to the IST and ESF #9 resources. The Logistics Section Chief participates in the development and implementation of the IST operational plan and activates and supervises the branches and units within the logistics section.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Medical Officer (MOFR): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Logistics Section Chief (and when required to the IST Leader) and has the overall responsibility for the management and supervision of medical and health functions for the IST and deployed ESF # 9 resources. In this role, the IST Medical Officer coordinates closely with the IST Safety Officer and IST Hazardous Materials Specialist.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Medical Unit Leader (MEDL): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Medical Officer and is responsible to assist the IST Medical Officer in providing medical support and direction to US&R Task Force Personnel assigned to the area of operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization. 

 

IST Operations Section Chief (OSC): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Leader and is responsible for all operations directly applicable to the urban search and rescue mission. This individual activates and supervises organization elements in accordance with the IST operations action plan and directs its execution. The IST Operations Section Chief also directs the preparation of operational plans, requests, or releases resources, monitors operational progress, and makes expedient changes to the operations plan as necessary.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Planning Section Chief (PSC): A position on the IST that is a member of the IST general staff and reports to the IST Leader. The IST Planning Section Chief is responsible for the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information, through the development of documents as needed to understand the current situation, predict a probable course of incident events, and prepare alternative strategies. The PSC develops IST Operations Action Plan (OAP), strategic and demobilization plans, and required reports.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Point of Arrival (POA) / Mobilization Center Specialist (POAM): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Logistics Section Chief and assists mobilization center officials to resolve coordination and logistics issues related to ESF #9 resources and operations. Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Incident Support Team – Representative (IST-R): A current US&R Incident Support Team (IST) Leader or Deputy IST Leader, recommended by the Advisory Group Chair and appointed by the US&R Branch Chief to represent IST interests in recommendations and work products submitted by various organizational levels within the Advisory Organization. The IST-R is a member of Senior Staff.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

IST Resource Unit Leader (RESL): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Planning Section Chief and is responsible for maintaining the status of all resources assigned to the IST.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

IST Safety Officer (SOFR): A position on the IST that reports directly to the IST Leader and is responsible for developing measures for assuring personnel safety and accessing and/or anticipating hazardous and unsafe conditions. The IST Safety Officer also monitors and assesses the safety aspects of the IST during incident operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

IST Security and Protective Services Specialist (SPSS): A position on the IST that is responsible for coordinating the Security and Protective Services function of the ESF #13 personnel assigned to the incident. The IST Security and Protective Services Specialist reports directly to the IST Logistics Chief and confers as needed with the IST Operations Section Chief and IST Leader. The IST Security and Protective Services Specialist is responsible for coordinating with Local and State Law Enforcement Agencies.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

IST Situation Unit Leader (SITL): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Planning Section Chief and is responsible for the collection, processing, organizing, and displaying of all incident information as it relates to ESF #9 resources. The IST Situation Unit Leader is also responsible for the preparation of future projections of the incident and any approved intelligence information.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

IST Structures Specialist (StS): A position on the IST that reports directly to the IST Planning Section Chief and is responsible for ensuring various structural assessments for the IST during incident operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

IST Supply Unit Leader (SPUL): A position on the IST that reports to the IST Logistics Section Chief and is responsible for requesting personnel, equipment, and supplies; and for receiving, issuing, storing, and maintaining inventory of supplies.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Incident Within an Incident (IWI): An IWI is a secondary incident involving or impacting incident personnel that requires response by incident resources occurring during a response in an all-risk, all-hazard emergency, or other task force activity directly involving team personnel or assigned resources. Some examples would be a swept or overturned watercraft involving incident personnel, a helicopter crash, or a secondary collapse entrapping US&R personnel etc. This secondary incident may result in serious injuries or illnesses, fatalities, or near miss incidents. IWI’s should be further defined as a Minor or Major Event.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Included Angle: The angle formed between sling legs at the hook. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Indian Tribes: The United States recognizes Indian tribes as domestic dependent nations under its protection and recognizes the right of Indian tribes to self-government. As such, tribes are responsible for coordinating tribal resources to address actual or potential incidents. When their resources are exhausted, tribal leaders seek assistance from States or even the Federal Government.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Indication: Trained behavior the canine exhibits when he/she recognizes human scent. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Indirect (Facilities & Administrative F&A) costs:  Indirect (F&A) costs means those costs incurred for a common or joint purpose benefitting more than one cost objective, and not readily assignable to the cost objectives specifically benefitted, without effort disproportionate to the results achieved. To facilitate equitable distribution of indirect expenses to the cost objectives served, it may be necessary to establish a number of pools of indirect (F&A) costs. Indirect (F&A) cost pools should be distributed to benefitted cost objectives on bases that will produce an equitable result in consideration of relative benefits derived.  Source: 2 CFR § Part 200.56.

 

Indirect Cost Rate Proposal: Indirect cost rate proposal means the documentation prepared by a non-Federal entity to substantiate its request for the establishment of an indirect cost rate as described in Appendix III to Part 200—Indirect (F&A) Costs Identification and Assignment, and Rate Determination for Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) through Appendix VII to Part 200—States and Local Government and Indian Tribe Indirect Cost Proposals of this part.  Source: 2 CFR § Part 200.57.

 

Inflatable Rescue Boat (IRB): Motorized, self-bailing inflatable vessels between 13’9”-15’6” (4.2-4.7 meters) long made of rubber (Hypalon) or plastic polymer (PVC, polyurethane, etc.). IRBs come with either rigid or inflatable floors. While all are made with a modified-v hull, there are also varieties with and without speed tubes. IRBs are, by definition, inflatable, but are also required to be self-bailing with scuppers in order to be part of a US&R water section cache. IRB outboard motors are to be 30-40 horsepower (hp) maximum. Designed for swiftwater, surf passage, floodwater, and evacuations, the IRB is the best choice for technical water or high-wind environments.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Information Bulletin (IB): The US&R Informational Bulletin (IB) is used to inform the system of trainings, meetings, vacancy announcements, staff changes, and important due dates.  All IBs are sent via e-mail to the same distribution list as Program Directives and General Memorandums.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2020-008.

 

Initial TF Briefing Form: A form developed for use during the activation phase of the response. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Instrument Flight Rules (IFR): Rules governing the procedures for conducting instrument flight. Also a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate type of flight plan.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Integrated Computerized Deployment System (ICODES): The ICODES is DoD's multimodal load-planning software, able to load the plan for air, sea, truck, and rail. The ICODES provides load planning, report generation, and forecasting services to the U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) and its component commands, DoD customers, and other authorized users. FEMA is able to prepare load plans for rapidly deployable capability packages, such as urban search and rescue (US&R) or the MERS, and can work with partners to help them do the same for their own.   Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Interagency Agreement (IAA): An agreement between federal agencies whereby one agency needing supplies or services (the “Requesting Agency”) obtains them from another agency (the “Servicing Agency”).  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual (IAMSAR Manual): A three volume joint publication between the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the intent is to standardize search and rescue operations for lost aircraft and lost vessels through coordination of efforts, practices, and policy across all nations.  In the United States, the IAMSAR Manual is supplemented by the NSS and the CISAR Addendum. Source: IAMSAR Manual.

International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG): A global network under the United Nations umbrella dealing with urban search and rescue (USAR) related issues.   Source: INSARAG Guidelines.

 

Intraosseous (IO): A route of delivery of fluid, blood, or medication through a large-bore needle inserted directly into the marrow of long bones. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

In-transit Visibility (ITV): A capability to provide maximum visibility and near real-time status on the movement of resources.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Intravenous (IV): A route of delivery of fluid, blood, or medication directly into a vein. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Inundation: The process of covering normally dry areas with flood waters.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Inventory: A periodic inspection and count of personal property for the purpose of verifying that the quantities actually on hand are in agreement with the quantities shown on the applicable property records.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

Ischemia: Cellular tissue death due to inadequate blood flow or oxygenation. Source: Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Isolated Person: In an ESF #9 incident only, any non-distressed person or persons stranded within a specific area or residence by incident conditions where immediate assistance is determined not to be required.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

J

Jib: An extension added at the tip of a crane boom to extend the reach of both lattice and hydraulic telescoping booms. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

J-turns: A boat maneuvering technique often used to catch an eddy, set up for rescue, go from plane to hover, or make a tight attitude change (from negative to positive). Operating a j-turn may require weight redistribution.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Joist: A piece of lumber used as a floor or roof beam. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Joint Field Office (JFO): The primary Federal incident management field structure. The JFO is a temporary Federal facility that provides a central location for the coordination of Federal, State, tribal, and local governments and private-sector and nongovernmental organizations with primary responsibility for response and recovery. The JFO structure is organized, staffed, and managed in a manner consistent with National Incident Management System principles. Although the JFO uses an Incident Command System structure, the JFO does not manage on- scene operations. Instead, the JFO focuses on providing support to on-scene efforts and conducting broader support operations that may extend beyond the incident site.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Joint Information Center (JIC): A facility established to coordinate all incident- related public information activities. It is the central point of contact for all news media. Public information officials from all participating agencies should co- locate at the JIC.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Joint Task Force – Civil Support (JTF-CS): A standing joint task force established to plan and integrate Department of Defense support to the designated lead federal agency for domestic chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives consequence management operations. Source: Joint Publication 3-14: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response.

Jon Boat: The current model on the US&R Equipment Cache List is the Model 1645 Rescue boat from Weld-craft. This model was designed specifically for US&R uses – especially floodwater and evacuations.  Within the FEMA US&R System, jon boats are rescue boats (Model 1645) from Weld-craft, designed specifically for US&R uses – especially floodwater and evacuations. The jon boat is aluminum double-walled and filled with foam, 16 feet long, a beam of 71 inches, 24-inch sides, and a 48-inch bottom. The bottom of the jon boat is flat and the bow is square. The jon boat also features removable center seats, handles for portage (1 in front, 2 on the outside rear, 3 on the inside interior), and a capacity of 1,182 pounds. Jon boats should also feature an outboard motor of a maximum 25 horsepower.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Jurisdiction: A range or sphere of authority. Public agencies have jurisdiction at an incident related to their legal responsibilities and authority.  Jurisdictional authority at an incident can be political or geographical (e.g., Federal, State, tribal, and local boundary lines) or functional (e.g., law enforcement, public health).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

K

Keel: The ridge running bow to stern on a vessel’s hull.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Keystone: The second level of the FEMA doctrine hierarchy is a Keystone.  The Keystone is the primary foundational document from which all other FEMA disaster response, recovery, mitigation, and logistics directives and policies are derived. It describes how the response doctrine, articulated in the National Response Framework (NRF) are implemented in the context of FEMA incident management and support operations. Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

 

Kiln-Dried Lumber: Lumber that is dried in an oven-like structure. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Kip: One thousand pounds. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Knot: A hard, irregular lump formed at the point where a branch grew out of a tree. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

L

Laminar Flow: The downstream flow of the river’s main current. It moves at multiple speeds at different layers.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Landfall: The intersection of the surface center of a tropical cyclone with a coastline. Because the strongest winds in a tropical cyclone are not located precisely at the center, it is possible for a cyclone's strongest winds to be experienced over land even if landfall does not occur. Similarly, it is possible for a tropical cyclone to make landfall and have its strongest winds remain over the water. Compare direct hit, indirect hit, and strike.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Lang Lay: The direction of winding of the wire in a wire rope where the wires in each strand are laid in the same direction as the strands in the rope; rope has the appearance of the wires being diagonal to the length of the rope. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Latency: Amount of time between the presentation of the stimulus and desired response by the canine (e.g., how long from the time the canine detects the strongest source of human scent to when he/she barks). Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Lattice Boom Truck Crane: Crane that is mounted on a carrier and features a relatively light, trussed boom consisting of four longitudinal chords (one at each corner) made from round, square, or angled, high-strength steel members that are diagonally trussed with smaller members of the same shape; most lattice boom truck cranes take significant time and space to assemble. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Lead Instructor:  The highest level of designation of a US&R instructor.  Only members of the FEMA US&R System may apply for this designation by the Training Subgroup after they have taught the prescribed number of Instructor-Led Training (ILT) courses.  Each Sponsored, Sanctioned or Equivalent training course must have a qualified Lead Instructor with overall responsibilities for the proper delivery of the course curriculum and management of the other instructors.  Source: FEMA US&R Training Administration Program Manual.  

 

Leader’s Intent: A clear and concise statement about what people must do to succeed in their assignments. It enables responders closest to the scene of action to adapt their plans and exercise initiative to accomplish the objective when unanticipated opportunities arise or when the original plan no longer suffices. It delineates three essential components: purpose, task, and end state. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Leadership Environment: The three critical elements that a successful leader must consider in planning for effective action: establishment and adherence to a chain of command, situation, and consequences. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Lean-to-Floor Collapse: A floor collapse in which one end of the floor remains partially supported by a wall or beam and the other end of the floor collapses to the floor below. A V-shape Collapse is similar, except two sections of floor collapse due to collapse of wall that supports them both. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Legal Representative: This individual is an attorney that is a member of or represents a System Sponsoring Agency or Participating Agency, recommended by the Advisory Group Chair and appointed by the US&R Branch Chief to participate in the Advisory Organization, that provides legal perspectives and advice on behalf of System Members and, if necessary, interfaces with the Office of Chief Counsel on ongoing legal matters affecting the System.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.    

 

Letter of Expectation (LOE): A written document established at the outset of a response between the AHJ and the Incident Management Team (IMT) designed to help clarify expectations for the IMT and to ensure their success in meeting the AHJ expectations. Source: FMEA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Lifecycle Management: All direct costs associated with a program and indirect costs that can be linked to a program. Lifecycle management includes certifications of reviewing officials on all relative documentation.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Lifeline Report: A wide area search waypoint data entry reporting of status or issue affecting the continuous operation of critical government and business functions essential to human health and safety or economic security.  Community lifelines are broken into: Safety and Security; Food, Water, Shelter; Health and Medical; Energy; Communications; Transportation; Hazardous Materials.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Lift and Drop Collapse: Occurs in buildings built with concrete floors, that have sustained a blast near street level. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Limited Access Search Site: A search site that is accessible at only one well-marked portion of the perimeter.  The canine must search the area and locate the Target Odor(s) out of the handler’s site.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Lily Pad: A term previously used to describe an interim stopping point during rescue operations where survivors can be accounted for, possibly have initial basic needs cared for, and from which they can be transported to a place of safety.  The preferred term is Casualty Collection Point (CCP). Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Line Launchers: A handheld device which uses various means of propulsion to help crews get rope to areas out of reach by a normal throwing distance.  Also known as Line Guns.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Liquefaction: In geology, liquefaction refers to the process by which saturated, unconsolidated sediments are transformed into a substance that acts like a liquid. Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction where loosely packed, water-logged sediments come loose from the intense shaking of the earthquake.  The term liquefaction is commonly misapplied to the displaced, saturated sediment as opposed to the process by which it was formed.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Live Find (LF):   The term used to describe a canine trained in the process of detecting and locating a live human being. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Livestock (Farm Animals): Livestock refers to horses, mares, mules, jacks, jennies, colts, cows, calves, yearlings, bulls, oxen, sheep, goats, lambs, kids, hogs, shoats and pigs. Mainly provide food for human or animal consumption.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Load Angle Factor: Change in force on a leg of a sling based on the sling angle; calculated by dividing the length of the sling leg by the height from the load directly up to the hook (L ÷ H). Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Load Chart: Document from the crane manufacturer that specifies the crane’s capabilities by detailing its lift capacity in different configurations at varying distances and angles; should accompany every crane. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Load Master: Individual responsible for all matters associated with preparing the Task Force equipment, supplies, and personnel during the palletizing, loading, in-flight logistics, and down-loading of the aircraft. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Local Emergency Operations Center (EOC): Each local jurisdiction will usually have an EOC to coordinate response to and support of moderate to large-scale incidents. Initial damage and needs assessment information is consolidated at this point to determine response needs and State and Federal asset requirements. Authority for the management of a disaster rests with the local officials and/or Incident Leader of the affected jurisdictions. State and Federal response is in support of local requests once local resources and capabilities are overwhelmed. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Local Government: Any county, city, village, town, district, or other political subdivision of any State; any federally recognized Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization; and any Alaska Native village or organization.  Source:  Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Local Jurisdiction: The affected locality/government that has the mandated responsibility for managing the disaster within its borders or boundaries. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Logistical Readiness: The availability of equipment caches and other logistic resources to support immediate deployment. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Logistics Information Management System (SAMS): SAMS is currently the official Agency automated property management system.  SAMS provides materiel management capabilities to support inventory control, property utilization and disposal, logistics provisioning, command and control of assets, and property accountability for both disaster and non-disaster operations.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Logistics Management Center (LMC): The LMC within FEMA HQ is the keystone of FEMA’s emergency management logistics enterprise. The LMC serves as the focal point in the Logistics Management Directorate (LMD) for collecting and clarifying day-to-day actions and incident response logistics requirements. As the single point of contact (POC) for LMD's customers, the LMC is the hub that receives and processes all customer requests. The LMC supports the Nation’s citizens and first responders through the FEMA regions and field offices by meeting incident-driven response and recovery logistics requirements with integrated and synchronized multi-discipline logistics operations.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Logistics Specialist (LS): A position on the task force responsible for ensuring the preparation and maintenance of the task force equipment cache. The Logistics Specialist reports directly to the Logistics Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Logistics Supply Chain Management System (LSCMS): The LSCMS comprises FEMA’s requesting, ordering, shipping, and tracking and inventory management and receiving systems, processes, and procedures used by Logistics Management, FEMA distribution centers (DC), and logistics field facilities. The LSCMS is used to request and order items (commodities/equipment), and transportation orders are fulfilled through the logistics supply chain at the national and regional level.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Logistics Team Manager (LTM): A position on the task force responsible for the logistics function of the Urban Search and Rescue Task Force and supervising the Task Force Logistics Specialist, Communications Specialist, Support Specialist, and other personnel as assigned.  The Logistics Team Manager reports directly to the Task Force Leader.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Lot Number: An identification number used to identify a category of consumable property items.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Low Head Dam: A man-made obstruction that creates sustained reversals that extend across an entire channel. These are also called a Weir.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Lower End: A term used to refer to the thinner bottom half of a motor that goes into the water during use. At the very bottom of the lower half is the propeller. Often referred to as the Prop.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

M

Maintenance: The act of cleaning, servicing, and repairing equipment to ensure that items are in operational condition.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Major Disaster: Any natural catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion, in any part of the United States, that in the determination of the President, causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under the Stafford Act to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, Local Governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Major Event: An IWI that requires a high level of response (i.e. additional resources, technical rescue assistance, investigation etc.) to the secondary event and will involve significant injuries, illnesses, loss of time, or System fatality. Once a process is finalized and implemented, major events may result in the activation of a MERT and completion of a Red Sheet.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Major Event Review Team (MERT): A MERT is a standalone team with the purpose of conducting a review of a major event or other assignment from an impartial and unbiased perspective. The MERT collects and interprets information to understand how and why the event occurred and to recommend corrective actions that change or establish agency policy or mitigate hazards to prevent future similar accidents. The MERT is particularly important in that they may influence organizational and operational change across multiple agencies.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Major Hurricane: A hurricane that is classified as Category 3 or higher.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Management Readiness: The in-place resources, plans, agreements, processes, and procedures to support deployments and meet requirements of the US&R System’s Readiness Cooperative Agreements and other audit requirements. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Manager: Individual within an Incident Command System organizational unit who is assigned specific managerial responsibilities (e.g., Staging Area Manager or Camp Manager).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Manuals: The third level of the FEMA doctrine hierarchy, such as the FEMA US&R Operations Manual.  Manuals describe concepts, capabilities, or functions, explaining "what" is being accomplished to perform a mission. They include definitions, descriptions of roles, functions, structure, and concept of operations for those conducting FEMA incident management and support duties.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.  

 

Maritime Administration (MARAD):  The federal agency responsible to promote development and maintenance of an adequate, well-balanced U.S. merchant marine sufficient to carry the Nation's domestic maritime commerce and a substantial portion of its waterborne foreign commerce. The MARAD is capable of serving as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency. The MARAD also seeks to ensure that the United States enjoys adequate shipbuilding and repair service, efficient ports, effective intermodal water and land transportation systems, and reserve shipping capacity in time of national emergency. The MARAD maintains the National Defense Reserve Fleet as a ready source of ships for use during national emergencies.   Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Mass Rescue Operation (MRO): SAR services characterized by the need for immediate response to large numbers of persons in distress, such that the capabilities normally available to SAR authorities are inadequate.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Material-handling Equipment (MHE): Use of MHE is the primary means of loading and unloading general and special cargo carried on military and commercial aircraft. Examples include forklifts, specialized aircraft cargo loaders, and conveyer belt loaders. Source: Department of Homeland Security Management Directive System MD Number: 0020.1, Aviation Management and Safety.

Materials: Property which may be used during construction, manufacture, or repair.  Materials may include such items as lumber, paint, raw steel, processed steel, parts, and components.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Matting: A generic term used to describe a support surface for heavy equipment and cranes made up of large timbers. The timbers within a crane mat have a common thickness, are green in moisture content, and are generally not graded for quality or strength. Typical sizes are 8” to 12” thick, 4' wide, and 16' to 40' in length. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Maximum Pay Rate Table: The DHS-issued table that identifies the maximum pay rates for selected System positions that may be used for reimbursement of Affiliated Personnel compensation and Backfill for Activated System Members employed by or otherwise associated with a for-profit Participating Agency. The Maximum Pay Rate Table does not apply to a System member whom a Sponsoring Agency or Participating Agency employs.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Maximum Use Concentration (MUC): The maximum atmospheric concentration of a hazardous substance from which a task force member can be expected to be protected when wearing a respirator, and is determined by the assigned protection factor of the respirator or class of respirators and the exposure limit of the hazardous substance. The MUC can be determined mathematically by multiplying the assigned protection factor specified for a respirator by the required OSHA permissible exposure, short-term exposure limit, or ceiling limit. When no OSHA exposure limit is available for a hazardous substance, the task force must determine a MUC on the basis of relevant available information and informed professional judgment.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.  

 

Medical Specialist (MS): A position on the task force responsible for performing the medical function of the task force incident operation. The Medical Specialist reports directly to the Medical Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Medical Team Manager (MTM): A position on the task force with overall responsibility for the management and supervision of the medical function of the task force during incident operations. The Medical Team Manager reports directly to the Task Force Leader.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Mechanical Advantage: Force-amplifying effectiveness of a simple machine, such as a lever, an inclined plane, a wedge, a wheel and axle, a pulley system, or a jackscrew. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Mechanical Splice: Ends of a wire rope are secured by pressing a metal sleeve over the ends of the strands of the splice; allows the pull on the wire rope to follow a direct line along the center of the rope. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Medical Team Fact Sheet: An informational sheet outlining the capabilities and requirements of the Task Force Medical Team. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

Memorandum of Agreement (MOA): The document signed by DHS, a Sponsoring Agency and its State that describes the relationship of the parties with respect to the National Urban Search & Rescue Response System. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU): Written agreements developed on site between the IST and jurisdictional incident management personnel to ensure a complete understanding of the scope, nature and requirements of the ESF #9 assignment. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Membership Status: The status of a Group’s members is based on the requirements of the taskings currently assigned to the Group.  Active status is defined as when members are tasked to perform specific actions or tasks to meet goals and objectives of the System related to their functional areas of responsibility.  Reserve status is defined as when members are not tasked to perform specific actions during periods of time when there are little to no requirements of the group. Members in a reserve status are permitted to stay informed on group business and are permitted, but not required, to attend meetings. Incurring travel costs to attend meetings is at the discretion of the member’s task force.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Metrics: Measurement tools developed to analyze and evaluate the status and the effectiveness of various parts of a property management system.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Minor Event: An IWI that requires a low-level response to the secondary event and generally involve minor injuries, illnesses, or resulting damage that would not be considered an “emergency.” These incidents should have minimal, if any, impacts on ongoing operations. A Blue Sheet is not required but may be submitted to improve situational and safety awareness.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Mission Assignment (MA): A work order issued by FEMA, with or without reimbursement, which directs another federal agency to utilize its authorities and the resources granted to it under federal law in support of state, local, tribal, and territorial government assistance. The MA form is OMB/FEMA Form 010-0-8 OMB#1660-0047.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Mission Assignment Amendment: A modification to a MA changing the period of performance (projected end date), authorized funding (de-obligation or obligation of additional funds), name of Project Manager, or state cost share. A change to the MA statement of work requires a new MA.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Mission Assignment Task Order (MATO): MATOs define a specific task based on the original statement of work (SOW).  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Mission Critical (MC): Type of observation that explains an item that has significant operational impacts that may lead to mission failure or loss of life or bodily injury. MCs require immediate elevation to senior leadership for consideration. Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Mission Ready Package (MRP): A specific response resource capabilities that are organized, developed, trained, and exercised prior to an emergency or disaster. A MRP is designed to provide additional support and/or to augment a needed capability to System resources already operating at an incident or event.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mission Ready Package – Canine Search (MRP-Canine): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment and five personnel, two of which are FEMA Certified Canine Handlers with either Live Find or Human Remains Detection Canines and are managed by a Search Team Leader.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.  

 

Mission Ready Package – Communications (MRP-COMMS): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment and six personnel which is managed by a FEMA US&R Communications Unit Leader.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mission Ready Package – Command (MRP-CMD): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment and give personnel which is managed by a FEMA US&R Incident Support Team Leader.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.  

 

Mission Ready Package – Logistics Support (MRP-Logs): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment and three personnel which is managed by a FEMA US&R Logistics Team Manager.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mission Ready Package – Search (MRP-Search): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment and seven personnel, two of which are Certified FEMA Canine Handers and also two Technical Search Specialists which are managed by a FEMA US&R Search Team Manager.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mission Ready Package – Structures Specialist (MRP-StS): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment and two FEMA US&R Structures Specialists or two USACE Structures Specialists.  This MRP will report to either the IST Structures Specialist or a deployed US&R Task Force Structures Specialist.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mission Ready Package – Technical Rescue (MRP-Rescue): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment and nine technical rescue personnel which is managed by a FEMA US&R Rescue Team Manager.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mission Ready Package – Tunnel Rescue (MRP-Tunnel): A US&R resource consisting of a Type 3 US&R Task Force and the addition of ten additional specially trained personnel and specific equipment for tunnel rescue operations.   Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mission Ready Package – Water Rescue (MRP-Water): A US&R resource consisting of specific equipment including four water rescue boats and sixteen water rescue personnel which are managed by a FEMA US&R Water Rescue Team Manager.  Source: Annex D – Mission Ready Package Concept of Operations.   

 

Mobile Acute Care Team (MAC-T): A DMAT mobile critical care team deployable within 12 hours and achieving initial operational capability within 1 hour.  The primary mission of the 18-person clinical team is to provide critical care staging at a Disaster Aeromedical Staging Facility (DASF) in support of the Department of Defense (DoD) or Department of State (DoS). The team can operate for a 24-hour period and will typically be deployed for up to 72 hours in support of the aeromedical evacuation mission or for up to 14 days in support of a definitive care facility. The DASF with a MAC-T is an 86-person temporary federal staging facility that can stabilize and maintain up to 12 critical care patients at a time (4 vented and 6 non-vented, or up to 12 non-vented) while awaiting aeromedical transportation.  Source: US Health and Human Services website. 

 

Mobile Emergency Response Support (MERS):  A mobile telecommunications capability that provides operational support, life support, and power generation assets for the onsite management of disaster and all-hazard activities.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Mobilization: The process of assembling equipment and personnel in response to an Alert or Activation.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Mobilization Exercise: A limited exercise, usually part of one operational period (less than 12 hours), designed to evaluate a Task Force’s ability to mobilize members and equipment rapidly and efficiently. This type of exercise normally takes place at the task force home location. It involves member call-out notification and check in processing (including medical fitness and completion of all required administrative documentation), and issuance of personal protective equipment to members. It normally involves limited cache assembly, packing, loading, and exercise of the task force’s convoy plan, as well as return to normal operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluation.   

 

Mobilization Center: A temporary facility used to receive, process, and support resources or Task Force during the mobilization and demobilization phases of a mission. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Mobilization Guide: Reference document used by organizations outlining agreements, processes, and procedures used by all participating agencies/organizations for activating, assembling, and transporting resources.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Mobilization Partial Payment (MPP): This is a payment made to a Sponsoring Agency that is 75% of the estimated personnel costs for that Activation and is requested by the Sponsoring Agency at the conclusion of a deployment. Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.   

 

Modular Exercise: A limited exercise, usually one operational period (12 hours), designed to evaluate the ability of the task force to complete tasks associated with one of the following typical task force operational stages 1) Mobilize, 2) Transportation of Personnel and Cache, 3) Establish a BoO, 4) Onsite Operations, 5) Demobilization. An example would be the System’s Mobilization Exercise required for yearly Phase I Self-Evaluation reporting.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluation.   

 

Movement: Property undergoing a change in physical location and/or change in property custodian or custodial officer.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Movement Control Unit (MCU): Controls the movement of resources and ensures the timely deployment of national-level incident response resources necessary to support incident response operations according to operational priorities. The MCU provides enhanced situational awareness, planning, coordination, and problem resolution between FEMA and its strategic support partners as resources are sent to the incident theater.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Movement Control Team (MCT): Small team deployable by the MCU that manages throughput and provides oversight of FEMA equities. The MCT does not interfere with normal operations of the node; rather, the MCT advocates for FEMA and executes the distribution plan at the incident level. MCTs occupy a transportation node and provide situational awareness, ensure smooth transitions, and track resources passing through the node.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Movement Coordination Center (MCC): Part of the NRCS and serves as the single point of coordination for resource transportation at the federal level. The MCC is the federal counterpart to the MCU. The MCC potentially must balance competing incident-level operational priorities from multiple incidents or regions and must manage “pull” transportation requests from those regions, as well as “push” transportation requests from the federal level. The MCC works closely with the MCU to coordinate, execute, and track resource movement into an incident area. The MCC gathers, analyzes, and distributes information regarding transportation assets and services. The MCC also synchronizes transportation resource scheduling to maintain efficient and responsive transportation support to IM, despite continuously changing conditions, requirements, and priorities.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Multimodal Transportation: The transportation of goods under a single contract but performed with at least two different means of transport. The carrier is liable (in a legal sense) for the entire carriage, even though it is performed by several different modes of transport (e.g., by rail, sea, road). The key difference between multimodal transportation and intermodal transportation is that intermodal transportation involves two or more contracts while the cargo moves using different modes, whereas multimodal transportation is a single contract with a single transportation service provider (TSP).  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Multiagency Coordination (MAC) Group: A group of administrators or executives, or their appointed representatives, who are typically authorized to commit agency resources and funds. A MAC Group can provide coordinated decision making and resource allocation among cooperating agencies, and may establish the priorities among incidents, harmonize agency policies, and provide strategic guidance and direction to support incident management activities. MAC Groups may also be known as multiagency committees, emergency management committees, or as otherwise defined by the Multiagency Coordination System.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Multiagency Coordination System (MACS): A system that provides the architecture to support coordination for incident prioritization, critical resource allocation, communications systems integration, and information coordination. MACS assist agencies and organizations responding to an incident. The elements of a MACS include facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications. Two of the most commonly used elements are Emergency Operations Centers and MAC Groups.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Multijurisdictional Incident: An incident requiring action from multiple agencies that each have jurisdiction to manage certain aspects of an incident. In the Incident Command System, these incidents will be managed under Unified Command.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Muscle Reperfusion: Restoring blood flow to a region of muscle. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Muscle Sprain: It is a stretching or tearing of ligaments which are tough bands of fibrous tissue that connects two bones together in joints. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Muscle Strain: Commonly referred to as a “pulled muscle” and occurs when a muscle or tendon is overstretched or torn. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Mutual Aid Agreement or Assistance Agreement: Written or oral agreement between and among agencies/ organizations and/or jurisdictions that provides a mechanism to quickly obtain emergency assistance in the form of personnel, equipment, materials, and other associated services. The primary objective is to facilitate rapid, short-term deployment of emergency support prior to, during, and/or after an incident.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Myoglobin: An oxygen-binding protein found within the skeletal cells that is responsible for the muscle’s use of oxygen by transporting oxygen within the cell. Skeletal muscle has high concentration of intracellular myoglobin. Outside the cell it is toxic and is particularly damaging to the kidneys. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

N

National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO): A non-profit organization which develops performance standards for safe load handling equipment operation to assist all segments of general industry and construction, and conducts independent assessments of knowledge and skills. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

National Essential Functions: A subset of government functions that are necessary to lead and sustain the Nation during a catastrophic emergency and that, therefore, must be supported through continuity of operations and continuity of government capabilities.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

National Disaster Medical System (NDMS): The System of federal deployable medical teams managed by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).  The NDMS System is comprised of Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs), National Veterinary Response Teams (NVRTs), Disaster Mortuary Operations Response Teams (DMORTs), Trauma & Critical Care Teams, and Victim Information Center Teams.  The NDMS System is activated and deployed by HHS during natural disasters or emergencies. Source: US Department of Health and Human Services website.

National Incident Management System (NIMS): A system mandated by Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 that provides a consistent, nationwide approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments; the private sector; and NGOs to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. To provide for interoperability and compatibility among federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial capabilities, the NIMS includes a core set of concepts, principles, and terminology. Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 identifies these as the ICS; multiagency coordination systems; training; identification, and management of resources (including systems for classifying types of resources); qualification and certification; and the collection, tracking, and reporting of incident information and incident resources.  Source: FEMA National Incident Management System.

 

National Response Coordination Center (NRCC): A multi‐agency center that provides overall Federal response coordination and emergency management program implementation (including both Stafford Act and non‐Stafford Act incidents). FEMA maintains the NRCC as a functional component of the HSOC in support of incident management operations. Multi‐agency coordination entities aid in establishing priorities among incidents and their associated resource allocations, resolving agency policy conflicts, and providing strategic guidance to support incident management activities.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

National Response Framework (NRF): A guide to how the U.S. conducts all- hazards response. It is built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation, linking all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. The NRF is intended to capture specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

National Search and Rescue Committee (NSARC): Federal committee comprising the Departments of Homeland Security, Defense, Transportation, Interior, Commerce, and State, the Federal Communications Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Established to oversee the NSP and act as a coordinating forum for national SAR matters.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

National Search and Rescue Plan (NSP): An interagency agreement that constitutes the primary authority and policy guidance for involvement of Federal Agencies (including the military) in coordinating, providing, or supporting civil search and rescue services. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

National Special Security Event (NSSE): A designated event that, by virtue of its political, economic, social, or religious significance, may be the target of terrorism or other criminal activity.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

National Urban Search and Rescue Response System (the System): Means the Task Forces, Incident Support Teams, and other personnel and technical teams which respond to disasters or emergencies under the direction and control of FEMA as Emergency Support Function 9 of the Federal Response Framework.  The 28 System Sponsoring Agencies employ the tools, equipment, skills, and techniques necessary to maintain US&R task forces.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

National Veterinary Response Teams (NVRT): A deployable federal veterinary team of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) that deploys with a logistics cache of tents, generators, and supplies that supports veterinarians, animal health technicians, epidemiologists working in the impacted area.  The NVRT is comprised of modular units to include small animal medical treatment task force, large animal medical treatment task force, working dog treatment task force and customizable multi-squad treatment teams. Source: US Department of Health and Human Services website.

National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (National VOAD): A consortium of more than 30 recognized national organizations active in disaster relief. Their organizations provide capabilities to incident management and response efforts at all levels. During major incidents, National VOAD typically sends representatives to the National Response Coordination Center to represent the voluntary organizations and assist in response coordination.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

National Stock Number (NSN):  A 13-digit catalog code consisting of a 4-digit Federal class code and 9-digit national item identification number.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Natural Disaster: Any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, fire, or other catastrophe in any part of the U.S. which causes, or which may cause, substantial damage or injury to civilian property or persons.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Near Miss: An unplanned event that did not result in injury, illness, or death but had the potential to do so. Only a fortunate break in the chain of events prevented an injury, fatality, or serious damage. Near miss events may meet the criteria for an IWI declaration. A Blue Sheet is required when a learning outcome can benefit others.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Negative Attitude: Positioning of the boat so it is traveling with the current. This is the attitude in which a boat would j-turn behind an object. Negative attitude requires higher throttle settings and a higher velocity than the current for control. This results in much faster grounds speeds than a positive attitude, meaning operators have less reaction time during operation. It is very difficult to hover at a negative attitude.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

Negative Punishment: Occurs when something desirable is taken away from the canine as a consequence of a specific behavior, decreasing the likelihood of an undesirable behavior being repeated. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Negative Reinforcement: Occurs when a canine’s behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, increasing the probability of the behavior occurring again. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Nerve Agent: The most toxic chemical warfare agents. Nerve agents are absorbed into the body through breathing, by injection, or absorption through the skin. They affect the nervous and the respiratory systems and various body functions.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Nerve Strength: The measure of the canine’s ability to manage stressful situations, including threshold to stress and recovery time. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Net Capacity: Load weight the crane can lift safely. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Net Load: Weight of the object being lifted. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Negligence: A departure from the course of action to be expected of a reasonably prudent person (all circumstances being considered) accompanied by a careless, deliberate, or wanton disregard for the foreseeable consequences of that act.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Ninety Degree Wall Collapse: The wall falls straight out as a monolithic piece at a 90-degree angle, similar to a falling tree. This is typical for buildings with Tilt-Up Walls. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Nonbearing Wall: A wall that supports only its own weight. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Non-capitalized Property: Property that has an acquisition cost below FEMA’s capitalization threshold.  Non- capitalized property is not recorded on the FEMA General Ledger.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Non-Exempt: Any system member who is covered by 29 U.S.C 201 et seq.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Nonemployee System Member: A system member not employed by a Sponsoring Agency or Participating Agency. Source: Public Law 114-326, National Urban Search and Rescue Response System Act of 2016.

 

Nongovernmental Organization (NGO): An entity with an association that is based on interests of its members, individuals, or institutions. It is not created by a government, but it may work cooperatively with government. Such organizations serve a public purpose, not a private benefit. Examples of NGOs include faith-based charity organizations and the American Red Cross. NGOs, including voluntary and faith-based groups, provide relief services to sustain life, reduce physical and emotional distress, and promote the recovery of disaster victims. Often these groups provide specialized services that help individuals with disabilities. NGOs and voluntary organizations play a major role in assisting emergency managers before, during, and after an emergency.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Non-reportable Property: Excess property that is not required to be formally reported to GSA (on a SF 120), such as perishables, property dangerous to public health and safety, scrap/salvage, property determined to be classified or otherwise sensitive for reasons of national security, as determined by the Administrator, FEMA.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO): FEMA’s formally issued announcement of the availability of Federal funding through one of its financial assistance programs. The announcement invites applications and provides such information as eligibility and evaluation criteria, funding preferences/priorities, how to obtain application kits, and the submission deadline.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Nuclear Blast: An explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Nuclear Detonation: A nuclear explosion resulting from fission or fusion reactions in nuclear materials, such as from a nuclear weapon.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Nuclear Radiation: Particulate and electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei in various nuclear processes. The important nuclear radiations, from the weapons effects standpoint, are alpha and beta particles, gamma rays, and neutrons.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

O

Object Classification Codes: A uniform financial classification used in all Federal Government transactions to describe the type of goods or services purchased, (e.g., contractor compensation, supplies, material, and equipment) in order to relate the purchase to the agency's budget.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Objectives: The broad, general statements that are overarching in nature & focus on the end result. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Obligation: A definite commitment that creates a legal liability of the U.S. Government for the payment of goods and services ordered or received or a legal duty on the part of the United States that could mature into a legal liability by virtue of actions on the part of the other party beyond the control of the United States. Payment may be made immediately or in the future. An agency incurs an obligation, for example, when it places an order, signs a contract, awards a grant, purchases a service, or takes other actions that require the U.S. Government to make payments to the public or from one U.S. Government account to another.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Observation: The consolidated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data to address an identified strength, area for improvement, potential best practice, or mission critical issue. It should include a topic sentence, discussion of evidence, desired outcome(s), and course(s) of action.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Odor: Volatile chemicals emitted from a target that are able to be perceived by olfaction. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Odor Recognition: Demonstration of the canine's olfactory ability to alert to a target odor(s). Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA): An office within the United Nations Secretariat responsible for bringing together humanitarian actors to ensure a coherent response to emergencies.  Source: INSARAG Guidelines.

 

Officer: The Incident Command System title for a person responsible for one of the Command Staff positions of Safety, Liaison, and Public Information.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Offset Collapse: Typical wood frame building collapse when the structure starts to Rack (form a parallelogram), and eventually collapses so that the structure is offset by the story height of however many stories are involved. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

On-site Operations and Coordination Center (OSOCC): A rapid response tool that provides a platform for the coordination of international response activities.  The OSOCC is set up to help local authorities in a disaster-affected country to coordinate international relief. Following a disaster, the OSOCC is established as soon as possible by the first arriving international urban search-and-rescue team or United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team deployed by OCHA.   Source: INSARAG Guidelines.

 

On Scene Coordinator (OSC): A person designated to coordinate search and rescue operations within a specified search area. See also Incident Commander (IC).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Open Web Joist: A lightweight steel truss used as a floor or roof beam. It is made from a steel bar, bent at 90 degree angles, and welded between angle irons at the top and bottom bar bends. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Operating Radius: The horizontal distance from the centerline of rotation (the center pin of the cab) to a vertical line through the center of the sheave at the end of the boom. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Operational Readiness: The availability of a complement of rostered, trained, deployable, and exercised members. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Operations Chief: The position in the Incident Command System that is responsible for managing the overall incident tactical operations and to whom the US&R Task Forces directly or indirectly report. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Other Federal Agency (OFA): Another federal agency or department that FEMA may mission assign to provide emergency and recovery assistance authorized in the Stafford Act. Other terms used in discussion on MAs include Emergency Support Function agency/department or federal agency/department.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

Operant Conditioning: Modification of canine behavior through reinforcement and consequences. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Operating Equipment: Reproduction and printing equipment, automobiles, trucks, lift trucks, machine tools, woodworking tools, power lawn mowers, power cleaning equipment, and other items.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Operational Action Plan (OAP): The plan published by the IST for the entire operation using information from individual task force plans.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Operational Checklist: A chronological listing of considerations and/or tasks that the identified user should address when carrying out mission assignments. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Operational Risk Management (ORM): A continuous process of reviewing the risks associated with a search and rescue operation.  The principles to consider are to accept no unnecessary risk, accept necessary risk when benefits outweigh costs, make risk decisions at the appropriate level, and integrate ORM into operations and planning at all levels. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Operational Period: The time scheduled for executing a given set of operation actions, as specified in the Incident Action Plan. Operational periods can be of various lengths, although usually they last 12 to 24 hours.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Operational Procedures: Documents developed to address strategies and tactics that a Task Force may be required to address and execute during a mission response. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Operational Readiness: The availability of a complement of rostered, trained, deployable, and exercised members. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Operational Readiness Exercise and Evaluation Program (OREEP): A US&R system exercise program that identifies procedures and documents for US&R task forces to successfully plan, coordinate, and deliver an exercise following the principles of HSEEP.  This standardized comprehensive exercise program is designed to improve operational readiness, reveal opportunities for improvement and identify resource gaps as well as to illuminate best practices.  Source: FEMA US&R Training Program Administration Manual.

 

Operational Work Area: The area established by the Task Force for controlling all activities in the immediate area of the work site. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Organizational Element:  A function, unit, or activity within FEMA that has property management responsibilities.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

Osteomyelitis: It is an infection in a bone caused by bacteria or fungi. The organisms can reach a bone from the bloodstream, spreading from nearby tissue or the bone itself being exposed to the outside environment (i.e., open fracture). Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Otitis Externa: An Inflammation of the external auditory canal or auricle with several causes including infections (bacterial, fungal, viral), chemical; sin conditions (i.e., eczema or psoriasis); trauma. Ear canal commonly inflamed from conditions of high humidity or contact with contaminated water. Also known as Swimmers Ear. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Otitis Media: Inflammation of the inner ear (area behind the tympanic membrane) due to infection. Inflammation often starts as an upper respiratory infection such as sore throat, nasal congestion and then spreads to the ear. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Outriggers: Used to balance a crane during lifting operations by lifting the entire truck, including tires, off the ground. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Outside Contiguous United States (OCONUS): The area of land located outside of the 48 States and the District of Columbia; that is, the United States prior to January 3, 1959 (Alaska Statehood), wholly filling an unbroken block of territory and would include Alaska and Hawaii. Although the official reference applies the term "conterminous," many use the word "contiguous," which is almost synonymous and better known.  Source: The US Geological Survey and U.S. Board on Geographical Names.

 

Over the Road (OTR):  Describes the transportation method used by a US&R resource that will be driving from their home station to the incident site.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

 

Overturn Collapse: Can occur in steel or concrete buildings where there is a weakness in a lower story and the entire building tips over. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Overturning Moment: The moment of energy capable of tipping the object. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Overall Primary Agency (OPA):  For each incident that requires Federal SAR support, FEMA designates the overall primary agency for that particular ESF #9 SAR response. This designation is dependent upon incident circumstances and the type of response required. The designated overall primary agency coordinates the integration of Federal SAR resources, including support agency resources, in support of the requesting Federal, state, tribal, or local SAR authority. All ESF #9 agencies provide support to the designated overall primary agency as required.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual. 

 

P

Palletize: To process to place on, transport, or store by means of pallets.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Pancake Floor Collapse: Collapse of one or more floors upon the floors or ground below into a pancake configuration. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Parapet Wall: A portion of an exterior, fire, or party wall that extends above the roof line. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Paronychia: An infection due to bacteria enter broken skin near the cuticle and nail fold, causing an infection adjacent to the nail. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Part:  An item forming a part of an assembly or subassembly that cannot normally be disassembled or repaired, or is of such design that disassembly or repair is impractical. Sometimes referred to as “spares” or “spare parts.”  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Participating Agency: This is a State or Local Government, non-profit organization, or private organization that has executed an agreement with a Sponsoring Agency to participate in the National US&R Response System. For more information, refer to Program Directive 2008-003.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.  

 

Partition: An interior wall, not more than one story in height, that separates two areas in the same building but is not intended to serve as a fire barrier (similar to curtain wall). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Party Wall: A wall that lies on a common lot line for two buildings and is common to both buildings. Most of these walls may be constructed in a wide range of materials or assemblies. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Pass-Through Community: Communities that are not evacuating their populations but are located on the evacuation routes of evacuating populations. Evacuees “pass through” these communities enroute to their final destinations. These communities may assist in facilitating evacuation operations. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Patch Kit: A collection of needed materials and tools to complete field repairs on a vessel with a hole, rip, tear, or puncture.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Peel Turns: A boat maneuvering technique where turns are performed to exit eddies, make a tight direction change from positive to negative attitude, or go from hovering to planing.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Pecuniary Liability:  The responsibility of an individual for the reimbursement of the monetary value of damaged, lost, stolen or destroyed Government property.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Period of Performance (POP): The period of performance is the time during which a mission-assigned agency is to complete specified activities and incur and expend approved funds.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Person in Distress: There is reasonable certainty that a person is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Personal Floatation Device (PFD): Commonly called a life jacket or life vest, a garment with high buoyancy to prevent a person from sinking in water.  The US Coast Guard certifies and regulates five different types of PFD’s based on the intended use.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Personal Property:  Property of any kind excepting real property or records of the Federal Government. It does not include property that is incorporated in or permanently affixed to real property. There are two categories of personal property; expendable and nonexpendable.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Personal Property Management System: Computer database used to record relevant data for accountable personal property; some systems also allow the user to perform other personal property management-related functions (e.g., transfer).  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Personal Protective Equipment: Clothing and/or equipment worn by workers (including first responders and first receivers) to prevent or mitigate job- related illness or injury. Individual PPE elements can include respiratory and percutaneous protective equipment. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Personally Charged Property: Property that is in the temporary possession of authorized persons for use outside of the organization.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Personnel Rehabilitation Period: The period allowed by DHS for a person's rehabilitation to normal conditions of living following an Activation (defined in Title 44 CFR Part 208).  The number of hours authorized by FEMA for each deployed member’s Personnel Rehabilitation Period will be located in Section IV, Block 2 of the Demobilization Order.  For more information, refer to Program Directive 2005-020.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.  

 

Phase 1 – Pre-Incident:  This phase of an incident focuses on preparedness and mitigation operations, including the development of plans and procedures, as well as the conduct of training and exercises for catastrophic incident response.  Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

 

Phase 2 – Response:  This phase of an incident focuses on an immediate, coordinated, and effective federal US&R response to save lives and reduce casualties following a catastrophic incident in support of survivors, communities and affected governments. The Secretary of Homeland Security has the lead for domestic incident management. The FEMA Administrator is the primary advisor to the President on responding to a catastrophic incident.  Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

 

Phase 2a – Initial Response:  This sub-phase of an incident, priorities include immediately deploying available Federal resources for conducting life saving and life sustaining activities in anticipation of state needs, gaining situational awareness to determine the scope of additional Federal support, and notifying personnel, departments, and agencies to assist in saving lives and reducing casualties. Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

 

Phase 2b – Deployment:  This sub-phase of an incident, priorities include the IST will begin travel within two hours of activation, reporting locations will be identified, and US&R resources to include task forces and Mission Ready Packages will deploy to their assigned locations. Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

 

Phase 2c – Sustained Response:  This sub-phase of an incident, the situational awareness of the incident is clarified and adjustments of US&R resources and IST staffing are made based on operational requirements.  Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

 

Phase 3 – Recovery: This phase of an incident is when the incident begins to shift to the recovery phase, specialized Federal resources such as US&R will begin to demobilize.  Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

 

Pier: A supporting section of wall between two openings. Also a short masonry column. Also a deep concrete foundation. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Pilaster: A masonry or concrete column bonded to and built as an integral part of the inside of a masonry wall. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Pillow: Waves formed along the upstream side of obstructions in the water. Also known as cushions.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Physical Inventory: A periodic inspection and count of personal property for the purpose of verifying that the condition and quantities actually on hand are in agreement with the condition and quantities shown on the official property records.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

Physical Screening: Assessment of a canine’s condition including evaluation of the hips, elbows, and other breed-specific issues. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Physical Search: Deployment of personnel over and around an incident site to make auditory assessments by hailing or visual assessments in voids for possibility of victims. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Place of Safety: Location where rescue operations are considered to terminate and where: 1) The survivor’s safety or life is no longer threatened; 2) basic human needs (such as food, shelter and medical needs) can be met; and (3) transportation arrangements can be made for the survivor’s next or final destination.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Plan: Step in the canine training cycle that identifies all those involved in the training exercise, a specific and effective training method, the setup of the training environment, and how the training is to be conducted. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Planing: Movement where the boat is level with the water while at higher speeds. This occurs when the boat looks to be skimming along the top of the water during travel. A planing boat will make a small wake and be level in the water. The prop/intake during planing is high in the water.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Planning Assumptions: Parameters that are expected and used as a context, basis, or requirement for the development of response and recovery plans, processes, and procedures. If a planning assumption is not valid for a specific incident’s circumstances, the plan may not be adequate to ensure response success. Alternative methods may be needed. For example, if a decontamination capability is based on the planning assumption that the facility is not within the zone of release, this assumption must be verified at the beginning of the response.  Source: FEMA Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101.

 

Planning Team Manager (PTM): A position on the task force responsible for planning aspects of the task force during incident operations. The Planning Team Manager supervises the Structures Specialist and Technical Information Specialist.   The Planning Team Manager reports directly to the Task Force Leader.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Plate: The top or bottom horizontal structural member of a wood frame wall or partition. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Platform Construction: Most common method of wood frame residential building construction (older structures may be balloon framed). A wood wall for this type of construction has a single 2x as sole at bottom and a double 2x plate at the top, with 2x studs sitting on the sole and having the double plates on top. Floor joists bear on the top plates and they are sheathed with plywood. (or solid 1x sheathing). The next story is framed with a second wall, with joist and sheathing on top, and so on. This type of construction may be three or four stories high. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Play Drive: Canine’s obsession with objects and his/her desire to actively entertain himself/herself. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Plowing: A common boat position during traveling, is movement where the stern is down into the water while a cushion forms in the water in front of the bow. During plowing, the boat will produce a large wake, and the bow will be elevated. The prop/intake is deep in the water at lower revolutions per minute (RPM) during plowing.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Pneumatic Shoring: Trench shores or jacks with movable parts that are operated by the action of a compressed gas. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide. 

 

Pneumothorax: A collection of air or gas in the chest or pleural space that restricts the lungs’ ability to inflate. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Point Last Seen (PLS): The location the missing person was last seen. Point Last Seen (PLS) is found by performing a Search And Rescue (SAR) interview. This information helps narrow the search area and hopefully increase the Probability of Detection (POD).  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Point of Arrival (POA): The POA is the assigned reporting location for deploying US&R task forces as well as for other Federal response entities or organizations as designated. The POA may be situated at an alternate site rather than at the primary mobilization center location identified in initial activation orders.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

Point of Assembly: The pre-established location designated by the Sponsoring Agency where task force personnel assemble upon activation.  This location is typically the task force’s warehouse and organized to provide areas for gear inspection and weighing, medical screening, personal information checks, briefings by task force managers, and issuance of any equipment prior to departing for the Point of Arrival. Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Point of Contact (POC): Points of contact are designated officials at the Federal, State, and local levels who have primary responsibility for coordinating actions of their respective organizations.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Point of Departure (POD): The designated point where a Sponsoring Agency must have their activated task force (both personnel and equipment) within the prescribed timeframe. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Port: The left side of the boat when facing the bow.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Positive and Timely Decision-Making: Task Force Leaders are duty-bound to act on a situation within their power to affect, even without direction from above and to use their best judgement, act within intent of the System, work in unison with others, develop and communicate a plan, and inform the IST or AHJ of actions as soon as safely possible. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Positive Attitude: Positioning of the boat so it is traveling against current (or the wind, whichever is the dominant force). This is the attitude in which a boat should rescue a victim from the water and launch, as it gives maximum control and lower ground speeds. Hovering and ferrying happen in this attitude. Positive attitude is the default attitude and the rescue attitude.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

Positive Punishment: Occurs when an aversive stimulus applied simultaneously or immediately after a canine’s behavior, decreases the probability of that behavior occurring again. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Positive Reinforcement: Occurs when a pleasurable reinforcer given simultaneously or immediately after a canine’s behavior, increases the probability of that behavior occurring again. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Post-tension Concrete: Tension is applied to the reinforcing steel cable after the concrete is hardened and anchored only at the ends of the structure. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Potential Best Practice (PBP): Type of observation the explain how activities not within policy yielded better results than could have been expected from solutions within policy under the same conditions.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Poured in Place Concrete: Concrete that is poured into the location where it is going to exist. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR): An air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment. 

 

Precast Concrete: Concrete that is cast, allowed to harden, and then erected as part of a structure. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Pre-declaration Activity: A pre-declaration activity comprises actions taken to prepare and pre-position federal resources necessary for an effective response to a present event where a declaration is reasonably likely and imminent (FEMA Directive 125-2 – Disaster Relief Fund [DRF] – Pre-Declaration [Surge] Funding).  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Preliminary Damage Assessment (PDA): A mechanism used to determine the impact and magnitude of damage and the resulting unmet needs of individuals, businesses, the public sector, and the community as a whole. Information collected is used by the State as a basis for the Governor's request, and by FEMA to document the recommendation made to the President in response to the Governor's request. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 206.33. 

Pre-Scripted Mission Assignment (PSMA): A PSMA includes a preliminary statement of work and cost estimate developed and coordinated prior to an incident by FEMA and an Other Federal Agency.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Pretension Concrete: Tension is applied to the reinforcing steel cable in a factory, prior to pouring the concrete. The concrete is then poured and bonds to the reinforcing. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Primary, Alternate, Contingency, and Emergency (PACE): A methodology for SPM planning and resource ordering.  Primary is the principal and most efficient approach, strategy, or resource to accomplish the objective.  Alternate is how the plan can be adjusted to known variables.  Contingency is an unexpected failure of resource capability in the operational environment such as an Incident Within an Incident or mission drift for the resource.  Emergency is when the safety of the resource and operational plan has been compromised and mission focus is on survivability. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Prey Drive: A canine’s intensity in chasing anything moving, including catching, biting, and carrying. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Primary Agency: See Emergency Support Function (ESF) Primary Agency.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Primary Mission Essential Functions: Government functions that must be performed in order to support or implement the performance of National Essential Functions before, during, and in the aftermath of an emergency.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Primary Search: A quick search of the structures (assigned area) likely to contain survivors.  These searches are ground or waterborne operations conducted by walking or boating around every structure in the assigned area of operations looking for survivors or deceased victims.  This is accomplished by looking into every window/opening, knocking on doors and hailing for live victims.  If there are signs of survivors or deceased victims, appropriate action will be taken based on the rules of engagement identified by the local Incident Commander.  Other considerations for Primary Searches are that they are a well-established fire ground/incident benchmark and the stated objective until accomplished.  A Primary Search is a fast paced, quick scan of surface debris in and around structures and selected voids.  The size and makeup of the search team is incident specific driven and flexible and detection resources may include physical, canine and technical.   Actions to immediately correct life-threatening injuries may be performed by the team.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.

 

Principal Federal Official (PFO): May be appointed to serve as the Secretary of Homeland Security’s primary representative to ensure consistency of Federal support as well as the overall effectiveness of the Federal incident management for catastrophic or unusually complex incidents that require extraordinary coordination.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Private Sector: Organizations and individuals that are not part of any governmental structure. The private sector includes for-profit and not-for- profit organizations, formal and informal structures, commerce, and industry.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Probability of Containment (POC): The likelihood of the search object being contained within the boundaries of some area. It is possible to achieve 100% POC by making the area larger and larger until all possible locations are covered.  Source: FMEA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Probability of Detection (POD): The likelihood of a Search and Rescue (SAR) operation finding a victim or victims. The POD is increased by getting accurate Time Last Seen (TLS) and Point Last Seen (PLS) during the Search and Rescue (SAR) interview process.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Probability of Success (POS): The likelihood that a search object will be found. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Procedure: A level of FEMA doctrine below a Manual which provides tactical level of detail that supports concepts established in manuals or guides.  Identifies specific actions and methods for performing a single function.  Includes things such as lists, timelines and tasks. Can be developed independently of other documents such as a manual, handbook, or guide.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

 

Program Directive: Guidance and direction for action to ensure consistency and standardization across the National US&R Response System.  Established by the US&R System in April 2003, the Program Directive is designed to provide a method to track written communication and official policy between the US&R Program Office and the Sponsoring Agency’s, Task Force Leaders, and System members.  The Program Directive is used for administrative and operational policies that could change over time so it will have either a re-issue or expiration date.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.  

 

Program Manager: The individual, or his or her designee, within DHS who is responsible for day-to-day administration of the National US&R Response System.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.  

 

Prolonged Field Care: Management of complex patients over extended periods of time in an austere or resource constrained environment. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Proofing: Ensuring that the canine understands the exercise by asking the canine to perform the task under a variety of conditions and distractions. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Prop: A shortened word to describe a motor’s propeller.  The bladed device that pushes water when it spins and moves the boat as a result.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Property: Anything that may be owned (usually confined to tangible property) including real estate and material.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Property Administrator: Property Administrators are designated and properly trained property management professionals who serve as the liaison between contractors and FEMA.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Property Management: Those functions of the Government which deal with the acquisition, control, protection, utilization, and disposal of Government property.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Property Management Officer (PMO): An individual designated in writing to manage the personal property (in use or in storage) assigned to an organization or activity under the PMO’s jurisdiction.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Protective Action Guide (PAG): A radiation exposure level or range (or level of other hazard) established by appropriate Federal or State agencies beyond which protective action should be considered.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Pry: A paddling stroke that involves the paddle being put into the water near the paddler/vessel and pushed away from the paddler/vessel.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Public Information: Processes, procedures, and systems for communicating timely, accurate, and accessible information on an incident's cause, size, and current situation; resources committed; and other matters of general interest to the public, responders, and additional stakeholders (both directly affected and indirectly affected).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Public Information Officer: A member of the Command Staff responsible for interfacing with the public and media and/or with other agencies with incident- related information requirements.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Pulmonary Contusion: Direct injury to the lung resulting in hemorrhage and edema in absence of lung laceration. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Pulverizer/Crusher: Excavator attachment used to crush concrete and separate into concrete fragments and rebar. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Purchase Card: Used by purchase cardholders to make micro-purchases (under $3,000) in accordance with Management Directive 0760, “Government Purchase Card Program”.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Purchase Cardholder: A Government employee who is a warranted Contracting Officer and holds a Government Purchase Card.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Purlin: A horizontal member between trusses or large beams which supports the roof. These are usually 4x or 6x members. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Q

R

Radiation: Energy moving in the form of particles or waves. Familiar radiations are heat, light, radio waves, and microwaves. Ionizing radiation is a very high-energy form of electromagnetic radiation.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Radiation Absorbed Dose (rad): A unit expressing the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. Absorbed dose is the energy deposited per unit mass of matter. The units of rad and gray are the units in two different systems for expressing absorbed dose. 1 rad = 0.01 gray (Gy); 1 Gy = 100 rad.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.  

 

Radioactive Contamination: The deposition of unwanted radioactive material on the surfaces of structures, areas, objects, or people. It can be airborne, external, or internal.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Radiological Incident: An event or series of events, deliberate or accidental, leading to the release, or potential release, into the environment of radioactive material in sufficient quantity to warrant consideration of protective actions. Use of an RDD or IND is an act of terror that results in a radiological incident.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD): An event or series of events, deliberate or accidental, leading to the release, or potential release, into the environment of radioactive material in sufficient quantity to warrant consideration of protective actions. Use of an RDD is an act of terror that results in a radiological incident.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Raft: An inflatable water vessel that, in the US&R water section of the equipment cache, are 12 to 14 feet (3.96 to 4.27 m) long, self-bailing boats with removable thwarts. US&R rafts are also one of two types of tube: traditional or tapered/diminishing. A simple and versatile vessel, rafts are limited mainly by the paddling of the crew due to the lack of motors.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Rafter: A 2x or 3x member, usually spaced at 16” or 24” that supports a sloped roof, and may form a simple truss. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Rapid Bridge Assessment: Conducted by a Structures Specialist (StS) to evaluate bridges along an access routes for US&R Task Force personnel and equipment, as well as safe evacuation routes.  These assessments may require bridge closures. The RBA-1 form should be used by the StS to aid in proper Bridge Assessments.   Source: FEMA and USACE Concept of Operations.

 

Rapid Needs Assessment (RNA): A quick assessment conducted to determine what resources are necessary to conduct life saving and life sustaining operations during the emergency response phase of a disaster. Source: FEMA Damage Assessment Operations Manual.

 

Rapid Structure Triage (RST): Refers to the process of very quickly evaluating several collapsed structures and determining which structures will receive operational priority. This process will be most appropriate for disasters that occur suddenly and cause collapse of many structures. This may be done immediately following the disaster by special RST teams or local responders.  Source: FEMA US&R and USACE Concept of Operations.

 

Re-Entry: The coordinated movement of first responders, recovery resources, and the public back into a community once a threat or hazard dissipates and the event causing the evacuation ends. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Readiness Cooperative Agreement: The agreement between DHS/FEMA and a Sponsoring Agency for reimbursement of allowable expenditures incurred by the Sponsoring Agency to develop and maintain System capabilities and operational readiness.  This is also referred to as the Preparedness Cooperative Agreement in Title 44 CFR Part 208.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Real Property: Real property consists of lands, improvements to lands, buildings, and facilities (including improvements and additions), and utility systems. It includes equipment affixed and built as an integral part into a facility.  It does not include removable plant equipment.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Receiving: The process of off-loading, inventorying, testing, and logging the receipt of resources ordered for a mission.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Receiving Officer (RO):  An individual designated in writing, and specifically trained to receive, inspect, certify the identity, quantity, and condition of items delivered to an organization. This individual is also responsible for ensuring that receipts are accurately recorded on receiving documents before such documents are passed to the APO for posting to the accountable records.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Reception/Departure Centre (RDC): The location in the United States established and staffed by USAID/OFDA that is responsible for the receiving, processing, briefing, and assigning of interpreters and FEMA US&R Liaisons to arriving international US&R task forces.  The RDC is also responsible for addressing special logistical requirements such as needs for fuels, compressed gasses, etc.  Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex A – Response CONOPS.

Reception Center: An interim site along an evacuation route that provides mass care and other emergency services to evacuees arriving in a host location via government transportation. Also known as Community Reception Center. A Reception Processing Site may be located within an impact jurisdiction (although outside the impact area) or in a host jurisdiction. These locations provide life-sustaining services, such as food, water, basic medical support, and assignment and transportation to a shelter. Additional services may include disaster and local weather information, reunification, and crisis counseling. Temporary sleeping space may also be provided while evacuee needs are evaluated or if evacuees arrive late at night. Jurisdictions should arrange separate areas for unaccompanied minors, people without identification, and individuals subject to judicial and/or administrative orders restricting their freedom of movement. These sites may also process evacuees returning to the impact jurisdiction. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Reconnaissance (Recon): The preliminary survey of the affected area and/or assigned area of operation for the purpose of determining the scope and magnitude of the incident and identifying the resources needed to manage the incident. This type of search is initial and fast visual check of the damaged area and/or assigned area of operation.  For single structure collapse incidents, the primary purpose of this action is structural assessment and hazardous materials assessment.  This type of search may be accomplished by air, waterborne craft, vehicles, or walking.  The size and make up of recon teams are incident driven and flexible but should remain as small as possible to keep teams “fast, light, and mobile”.  Recon teams should not engage in extrication/rescue operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.

 

Recovery: The development, coordination, and execution of service- and site- restoration plans; the reconstitution of government operations and services; individual, private-sector, nongovernmental, and public assistance programs to provide housing and to promote restoration; long-term care and treatment of affected persons; additional measures for social, political, environmental, and economic restoration; evaluation of the incident to identify lessons learned; post-incident reporting; and development of initiatives to mitigate the effects of future incidents.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Recycling: The recovery of raw materials from property for the purpose of using them again.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Recommended Training: A list of recommended and optional training that will enhance a member’s ability to serve in their assigned position. The recommended training has been identified as providing additional knowledge, skills and abilities that complement the position specific Instructor-Led Training course.  Not all position descriptions have recommended training.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Reconciliation: The process of getting individual property records in the personal property management system fully consistent with the actual status of the personal property, including the asset’s physical location, actual acquisition cost, etc.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Red Sheet: The Red Sheet is a comprehensive FLA conducted by the MERT. This report is intended to provide detailed information encompassing all aspects of the event. Upon completion, this report shall be submitted to the FEMA US&R Branch for approval and distribution. Information contained within this report may be part of a multi-agency investigation and be provided in addition to other reports and/or documents. This report shall be required for all MERT activations.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Reeving: Placing of wire rope on a crane’s moving and stationary blocks; affects crane capacity by increasing mechanical advantage. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Refuge of Last Resort: A venue that is used by individuals when a hazard is imminent or occurs with no warning. These are not shelters and are meant to provide temporary and limited protection as an incident occurs. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Regional Air Movement Coordination Center (RAMCC):  Coordinates movements of military airlift missions (as well as civilian airlift flights contracted by the military) by supporting disaster response and recovery efforts undertaken by federal and state civilian authorities. This coordination includes the management of slot control programs at military airfields and for military-managed contingency ramps at civil or joint-use airports. The RAMCC collaborates closely with the FAA’s AARC.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Regional Certification Evaluation (CE): A FEMA sanctioned certification evaluation utilizing either Live Find or Human Remains Detection. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC):  An RRCC is a standing facility operated by a FEMA regional office that is activated to coordinate regional response efforts, establish Federal priorities, and implement local Federal program support. Currently, 10 FEMA RRCCs provide the initial coordination of Federal response and recovery activities. The responsibility of an RRCC is to establish and coordinate communications with the affected state emergency management agency and the National Response Coordination Center, coordinate deployment of the incident management assistance team to field locations, assess damage information, develop situation reports, and issue initial mission assignments.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual. 

 

Regular Lay: The direction of winding of the wire in a wire rope where the wires in each strand are laid in one direction while the strands making the rope are laid in the opposite direction; rope has the appearance of the wires being parallel to the length of the rope. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Regulations: The rules made by the Federal government or other authority in order to control the way something is done or the way people behave.  In the US&R Administration Manual, it mainly refers to the documents associated with US&R program and/or cooperative agreements. Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Rehabilitation: The process of returning personnel and equipment to a pre-incident state of readiness after DHS terminates an Activation. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Reimbursement:  The process followed by FEMA to ensure Alerts and Activations are as cost neutral as possible in accordance with Subpart C of 44 CFR Part 208.  The Reimbursement Package will be submitted to the US&R Branch and will include all required documentation in accordance with the CFR and FEMA policies and directives.  Source: Annex B – US&R Cooperative Agreements.

Reinforcement Schedules: A determination of the number of canine responses, the interval of time, and the duration of the response is reinforced. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Reinforcer: Anything that increases the probability of a canine’s response; may be positive or negative. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Rem: A unit of absorbed dose that accounts for the relative biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations in tissue (also called equivalent dose). Not all radiation produces the same biological effect, even from the same amount of absorbed dose; rem relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation. The units of rem and Sievert are the units in two different systems of expressing equivalent dose. 1 rem = 0.01 Sieverts (Sv); 1 Sv = 100 rem.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Reperfusion: Restoration of blood flow to an organ or tissue. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Reperfusion Injury: Tissue damage caused when the blood supply returns to tissue after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Repetitive Barking: Three barks directed at the same Target Odor that may be interspersed with digging, scratching, or any other attempt to access the Target Odor.  The canine may reposition itself while indicating at Target Odor location. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

Reportable Property: Excess property that must be reported promptly to GSA on a Standard Form 120 with descriptions in sufficient detail to permit transfer or sale without further reference to the holding agency, such as information systems equipment, furniture, or vehicles.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Required Delivery Date (RDD): The RDD is the date a resource must arrive at its destination. An RDD is negotiated between transporters and resource requestors; operational incident priorities may require changing RDDs.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Required Experience: The required experience described in a Position Description of the operational knowledge a member will need to possess prior to serving in their assigned position. The required experience will be gained from previous US&R deployments or having operational knowledge gained while working in specialized areas for their sponsoring agency or as part of a different emergency response organization.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Required Training: A list of all mandatory training and administrative requirements in a Position Description that a member must complete before they are considered fully deployable in their assigned position.  US&R members are not to deploy until they have documentation on file with their task force demonstrating they have met all the required training of their assigned position description.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Rescue: An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs, and deliver them to a place of safety.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

Rescue Action Plan (RAP): A message, normally developed by the SMC and provided to the OSC and SAR responders.  The RAP is similar to the SAP, but with search instructions replaced with rescue directions. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

 

Rescue Coordination Center (RCC): A unit, recognized by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), International Maritime Organization (IMO), or other cognizant international body, responsible for promoting efficient organization of SAR services and for coordinating the conduct of SAR operations within a SAR Region

(SRR).  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Rescue Specialist (RS): A position on the task force responsible for performing the rescue function of the task force incident operation.  The Rescue Specialist reports directly to a Rescue Squad Officer.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Rescue Squad Officer (RSO): A position on the task force responsible for supervising one or more Task Force Rescue Squad(s). The Rescue Squad Officer reports directly to the Rescue Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Rescue Sub-Center (RSC): A unit subordinate to an RCC established to complement the latter according to particular provisions of the responsible authorities.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Rescue Team Manager (RTM): A position on the task force responsible for managing and coordinating all operational functions of the task force. The Rescue Team Manager reports directly to the Task Force Leader.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Reservist: An individual hired to augment the permanent full-time FEMA personnel in disaster operations in the field. Reservists are considered Federal employees during the time of their activation, and as such are covered under the Federal Tort Claims Act and the Federal Employees Compensation Act. Reservist salaries are determined according to the latest FEMA Reservists pay scale, and are paid according to FEMA policies and procedures.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.  

 

Residual Personal Property: Excess, surplus, salvage, and scrap property which may result from engineering changes, parts, and components remaining after completion of production at a contractor’s facility, and excess parts caused by economic order quantities that exceed actual requirements.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Resisting Moment: Resistance to overturning. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Response Cycle: The specific sequence of ten steps a US&R resource will follow from the time of the precipitating event and finalizing with the post mission work. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Resolution: The phase of the Continuous Improvement Process that involves conducting an Improvement Planning Workshop and developing an action plan.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Resource:  The term used to generally describe any type or size of FEMA US&R response entity to include task forces, Incident Support Teams, or Mission Ready Packages.  Example: If several US&R Task Forces, the IST, and several Mission Ready Packages are all deployed to a state, they could be collectively be referred to as all US&R resources in the impacted area.  Source: FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide.

 

Resource and Capability Branch Director (RCBD): The RCBD serves as the focal point for tasks and the status of tasks for the region, private sector, and private nonprofits regarding the provision of resources. The RCBD manages, coordinates, and supports activities of assigned ESFs, resource providers, and sources to include mass care, operational support, emergency services, and infrastructure asset functions in support of the incident requirements. The RCBD receives and identifies sources to fill all validated requests. The RCBD provides available capabilities to the Order Processing Group (OPG) to meet resource requests and provides resources and capability requirements.  The NRCC SARUL reports to the RCBD position in the NRCC.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Resource Request Form (RRF): The Office of Management and Budget form used for requesting resources (FEMA Form 010-0-7; OMB Form No. 1660-0002). This form is accessible through the Resource Request Board in WebEOC.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Responder: A person designated by a responsible authority, that is trained, equipped, and qualified in a position to perform a specific task.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Responder Information Sheet: A form developed to collect and list all necessary information on task force personnel. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Response: Activities that address the short- term, direct effects of an incident.  Response includes immediate actions to save lives, protect property, and meet basic human needs. Response also includes the execution of emergency operations plans and of mitigation activities designed to limit the loss of life, personal injury, property damage, and other unfavorable outcomes. As indicated by the situation, response activities include applying intelligence and other information to lessen the effects or consequences of an incident; increased security operations; continuing investigations into nature and source of the threat; ongoing public health and agricultural surveillance and testing processes; immunizations, isolation, or quarantine; and specific law enforcement operations aimed at preempting, interdicting, or disrupting illegal activity, and apprehending actual perpetrators and bringing them to justice.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Responsibility: The obligation of a person for the proper custody, care, and safekeeping of Government property in or under their possession or supervision.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Restrained Beam: A beam who's ends are so securely welded or bolted so that they cannot rotate. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Review Board: A group of employees who have management oversight of the property management program and conduct reviews during the Report of Survey process.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

Reward: Something that, when presented after a canine behavior, causes the probability of that behavior’s occurrence to increase. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Rhabdomyolysis: A life-threatening condition resulting from the breakdown of skeletal muscle due to several causes (i.e., trauma, medication, and infection). Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Richter scale: The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Adjustments are included for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquakes. On the Richter scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Ridgepole: (Ridge Beam) A horizontal timber that frames the highest point of a peak roof. Roof rafters fastened to the ridgepole. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Rigging Action Plan (RAP) Form: Used to plan the rigging operations for a given operational period. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Risk of Loss: Liability or responsibility for bearing the cost of loss, damage, theft, or destruction of Government property.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

River Left: The left when facing downstream.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

River Right: The right when facing downstream.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

River Search: A search downstream of a point for reported victim(s). For example, downstream of a vehicle in a river if there's a missing person.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (“Stafford Act”; PL 100-707): Stafford Act was signed into law November 23, 1988; amended the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, PL 93-288. This Act describes the programs and processes by which the Federal Government provides disaster and emergency assistance to State and local governments, tribal nations, eligible private nonprofit organizations, and individuals affected by a declared major disaster or emergency. The Stafford Act covers all hazards, including natural disasters and terrorist events.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Roentgen (R): A unit of gamma or x-ray exposure in air. It is the primary standard of measurement used in the emergency responder community in the U.S. For the purpose of this guidance, one R of exposure is approximately equal to one rem of whole-body external dose.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Root Cause Analysis: A data analysis technique that follows a structured process for determining the originating factor(s) that directly led to a specific outcome.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

Rotator Wrecker: A wrecker/recovery vehicle consisting of a rotating superstructure (center post or turntable), adjusting boom, operating machinery, and one or more operator’s stations mounted on a frame attached to a truck chassis. Such a vehicle has the ability to lift, lower and swing loads at various radii. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Rough Terrain Crane: Hydraulic boom crane designed to move around a job site; not designed to lift or carry loads in rough terrain but may lift and slowly carry as long as they remain within 1% of being level (1 ft. in 100 ft.) . Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Rules of Engagement (ROE): The guiding principles articulated by the Authority Having Jurisdiction that inform the actions and decision making by responders performing search and rescue operations within their jurisdiction. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

 
 

S

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale: The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 categorization based on the hurricane's intensity at the indicated time. The scale provides examples of the type of damage and impacts in the United States associated with winds of the indicated intensity.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Safety Factor (SF): Structural capacity of a system beyond the expected or actual loads. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Safety Officer (SO): A position on the task force responsible for monitoring and assessing the safety aspects of the task force during training, exercises, and incident operations. The Safety Officer reports directly to the Task Force Leader.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Safety Stand Down: A Safety Stand Down is an opportunity for personnel to pause and reflect on an issue, event, or pertinent information. This pause can range from a short tactical briefing to a complete cease of operations. Safety Stand Downs are typically used to improve the safety and welfare of personnel by increasing their situational awareness during an operational incident.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex F – Safety.

 

Salvage Personal Property: Personal property that has some value in excess of its basic material content, and its repair or rehabilitation is impracticable (estimated repair or rehabilitation to cost in excess of 65 percent of acquisition cost.)  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Sandwich Wall: A nonbearing wall whose outer faces enclose an insulating core material. (some may be used as bearing walls). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Scab: A short piece of lumber generally cut from 2” x 4” stock, that is nailed to an upright to prevent the shifting of a shore. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Scent Sensitivity: The threshold at which a canine reacts to human scent. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Scrap Personal Property: Personal property that has no value except for its basic material content.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Screw Jack: A trench shore or jack with threaded parts. The threading allows the jack to be lengthened or shortened. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Scupper: A system in a boat to remove water, allowing any in the boat to flow back out of the boat.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Seaport of Embarkation (SPOE): The geographic point in a routing scheme from which cargo or personnel depart. This may be a seaport or aerial port from which personnel and equipment flow to a port of debarkation.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Search: An operation using available personnel and facilities to locate persons in distress.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Search Action Plan: Message, normally developed by the SMC, for passing instructions to SAR facilities and agencies participating in a SAR mission. See also Incident Action Plan.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Search and Rescue Coordinator (SC): As defined in the IAMSAR Manual, one or more persons or agencies within an Administration with overall responsibility for establishing and providing SAR services, and ensuring that planning for those services is properly coordinated.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Search and Rescue Intelligence Group (SARIG): An analysis team (either structured or ad hoc) that coordinates the compilation and categorization of field (forward) site intelligence data (raw data), enhancing the task force’s efficiency in regard to addressing the highest life-safety priorities and detailed search planning. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator (SMC): The official temporarily assigned to coordinate response to an actual or apparent distress situation.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Search and Rescue Region (SRR): An area of defined dimensions, associated with a rescue coordination center, within which search and rescue services are provided.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Search and Rescue Unit Leader (SARUL): A position staffed in the FEMA National Response and Coordination Center that is responsible for tracking the movement of deployed USR& resources enroute and demobilizing from a disaster and also provides a focal point of NRCC questions and coordination during activations of the NRCC.   Source:  FEMA US&R Branch Staff Manual, Annex B - NRCC ESF #9 Job Aid

 

Search Marking: A marking that identifies the search team entering the building, when the building was entered, hazards, number of victims remaining inside (live and deceased), when the search team left the building, whether the building was completely searched, and any other critical information. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Search Modes:  The two different modes of search are detection mode.  Detection mode is to determine if victims are present. Location Mode occurs after detection and is to confirm a victim’s location and pinpoint for rescue.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2009-009.

 

Search Phases and Modalities:  There are generally five phases of organized search and rescue operations during Disaster Operations.  Phase One is the assessment of the disaster area (Recon).  Phase Two is the removal of surface victims (Rapid/Hasty).  Phase Three is the search and rescue of victims from accessible voids (Primary and/or Secondary).  Phase Four is selected debris removal to locate and rescue victims/Human Remains Detection (HRD)* (Secondary).  Phase Five is general debris removal, usually conducted after all known victims have been removed, and Human Remains Detection (HRD) has been completed* (Secondary).  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2009-009.

 

Search Planning and Management (SPM): The process of developing and managing complex multi-agency integrated search and rescue plans through a collaborative interagency planning process that ensures efficiency among the agencies and incorporates standardized interoperability among federal, state, tribal, territorial, and local agencies and resources during an incident response.Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Search Team Manager (STM): A position on the task force responsible for managing the search function of the task force and supervising the Canine Search Specialists and Technical Search Specialists. The Search Team Manager reports directly to the Task Force Leader.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Searched per Rules of Engagement (ROE): A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating a search that has been completed on a structure, vehicle, debris, or other site with no victims or survivors found during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Secondary Collapse: A collapse which follows the initial collapse. Can be caused by application of additional loads (aftershocks, wind snow, etc. rescue equipment, rescuers, etc.), settling of collapsed structures, and drying of the soil. Secondary Collapse can occur if significant Potential Energy is still present in the structure. Potential Energy may be characterized as heavy structure and objects that remain elevated and may move downward under force of Gravity. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Secondary Search: The systematic search of every room of every structure in the assigned area of operation.  Forced entry of structures may need to occur in order to accomplish this objective but will only be done with the authority of the local Incident Commander and should be clearly stated in the Rules of Engagement (ROE).  This may involve extensive debris removal of building materials depending on the desired level of coverage and thoroughness.  Secondary search can be divided in to two levels of coverage: Low Coverage Secondary Search and High Coverage Secondary Search.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.

 

Secondary Search, High Coverage: One of two categories of secondary search involving the systematic and thorough search of every room in every structure in the assigned area of operation in and around every void space.  Upon completion, the search is considered closed.  This type of secondary search shares the same characteristics of a Low Coverage Secondary Search with the addition of complete de-layering and removal of collapsed debris to ensure thoroughness and may include use of heavy equipment.  The size and make up of search and extrication teams is incident driven and flexible and location/detection resources may include physical, canine and technical.    Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.

 

Secondary Search, Low Coverage: One of two categories of secondary search involving the systematic search of every room in every structure in the assigned area of operation, in and around every void spaces.  Forced entry of structures may need to occur in order to accomplish this objective but will only be done with the authority of the local Incident Commander and should be clearly stated in the ROG.  The size and make up of search teams is incident driven and flexible and the location/detection resources may include physical, canine and technical.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.  

Secretary of Defense: Responsible for homeland defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities for domestic incidents when requested by civil authorities or when directed by the President. Federal military forces always remain under the command of the Secretary of Defense.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Secretary of Homeland Security: Serves as the principal Federal official for domestic incident management, which includes coordinating both Federal operations within the United States and Federal resources used in response to or recovery from terrorist attacks, major disasters, or other emergencies. The Secretary of Homeland Security is by Presidential directive and statutory authority also responsible for coordination of Federal resources utilized in the prevention of, preparation for, response to, or recovery from terrorist attacks, major disasters, or other emergencies, excluding law enforcement responsibilities otherwise reserved to the Attorney General. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Secretary of State: Responsible for managing international preparedness, response, and recovery activities relating to domestic incidents and the protection of U.S. citizens and U.S. interests overseas.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Section: The Incident Command System organizational level having responsibility for a major functional area of incident management (e.g., Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance/Administration, and Intelligence/Investigations (if established). The Section is organizationally situated between the Branch and the Incident Command.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Segment: A geographical area in which a task force/strike team leader or supervisor of a single resource is assigned authority and responsibility for the coordination of resources and implementation of planned tactics. A segment may be a portion of a division or an area inside or outside the perimeter of an incident. Segments are identified with Arabic numbers, i.e., A-1, etc. and are not to be used as radio designators. Source: NWCG Glossary

Seizing: A method to bind the ends of a wire rope to prevent the rope from un-laying; one wrap around the wire is one seizing; number of seizings needed is the rope diameter multiplied by three and rounded up to the next whole number. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA): An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.  

 

Self-Evacuees: The evacuees with the means and capability to evacuate the impacted area without government-provided transportation assistance. The primary modes of transportation during an evacuation are foot, bike, car, train, and bus. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Senior Leadership Brief (SLB): An incident-specific document that is intended to provide the Secretary, senior DHS leaders, and the White House a snapshot summary of domestic incidents to include; information obtained from DHS components, other Federal, state, local, and tribal entities, the private sector, and open sources. The US&R inputs to the SLB are prepared by the SARUL and approved by the US&R Branch Chief or his designee.  The SLB provides leadership with timely and relevant information to make necessary decisions related to prevention, protection, response, and recovery efforts.  Source: FEMA US&R Branch Staff Manual, Annex B - NRCC ESF #9 Job Aid.

 

Senior Staff: Comprised of the Advisory Group Chair, Deputy Advisory Group Chair, Legal Representative, TFR-D’s (3), Command FGL/IST-R, and US&R Branch Section Chiefs (2).  The Senior Staff is part of the Advisory Group and responsible for coordinating activities, and reviewing recommendations and work products submitted by the various organizational levels within the Advisory SupportGroup.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Sensitive Items:  Those items, regardless of value, that require special control and accountability because of susceptibility to unusual rates of loss, theft, or misuses, or due to national security export control considerations. Items include, but are not limited to, weapons, ammunition, explosives, classified property, laptops, computers, personal digital assistants, other information technology equipment and removable components with memory capability. Spare equipment-items held as replacement spares for equipment in current use in Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) programs.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Sensorium: An individual’s level of consciousness or mental awareness as they relate to themselves and their environment. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Sepsis: A life-threatening condition that arises when the body response to an infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Service Animal: Any guide dog, signal dog, assistive dog, seizure dog, or other animal individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including but not limited to guiding individuals with impaired vision, alerting individuals with impaired hearing to intruders or sounds, providing minimal protection or rescue work, pulling a wheelchair, or fetching dropped items.  Service animals shall be treated as required by laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Service Life: The period of time that a respirator, filter or sorbent or other respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.   

Shackle: A connecting link in rigging systems consisting of a U-shaped piece of metal with a pin or bolt across the opening; allow different rigging to be connected and disconnected quickly. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Shaping: Deliberately reinforcing stronger responses by a canine and omitting reinforcement for weaker responses. With a goal of a clearly defined desired behavior. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Shears: Excavator attachment used to cut concrete, structural steel, and wood members. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Shear Stress: A stress causing a structure to collapse when contacting parts or layers of the structure slide past one another. (Shearwall, Beam Shear, Slab Punching Shear). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Sheathing: The covering applied to the floor/roof or wall framing of a building to which siding is applied. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Sheeting: Generally speaking, wood planks and wood panels that support trench walls when held in place by shoring. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Shelter (Mass Care): A facility where government agencies and/or pre-established voluntary organizations process, evaluate, and provide disaster services to evacuees without an endpoint destination. Meals and water should be available, as well as basic first aid, pet sheltering (if applicable), sleeping quarters, hygienic support, and basic disaster services (e.g., counseling, financial assistance, and referral). Durable medical equipment, communication aids and other necessary support assistance will be available at these locations as well. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Shelter Demand: The estimated percentage or number of people in a population who will require mass care services in public shelters. A general rule of thumb is to plan for approximately 10-15 percent of the population, but this can vary widely based on socioeconomic factors, hazard specifics, and other variables. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Shelter-in-Place: The use of a structure to temporarily separate individuals from a hazard or threat. Sheltering in place is the primary protective action in many cases. Often it is safer for individuals to shelter-in-place than to try to evacuate. Sheltering in place is appropriate when conditions necessitate that individuals seek protection in their home, place of employment, or other location when disaster strikes. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Shock Load: When a load is jerked quickly in any direction; a sudden or unexpected load imposed on a system. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Shoring: The general term used for lengths of timber, screw jacks, hydraulic and pneumatic jacks and other devices that can be used to hold sheeting against trench walls. Individual supports are called shores, cross-braces, or struts. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Sieves: Close-packed obstructions (such as boulders) that allow water to flow through but are too tight for a vessel or person to pass through.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Simply Supported Beam: A beam supported at both ends. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Single Site Incident: Incident affects a small geographic area with a limited number of structures. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Site Safety Plan:  A specialized safety plan developed to be incorporated into the Operational Action Plan and Tactical Action Plan that encompasses all health and safety aspects of conducting SAR operations in or near contaminated environments.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment. 

 

Situation Report (SITREP): Document that contains confirmed or verified information and explicit details (who, what, where, and how) relating to an incident.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Skid Steer: Smaller version of a wheel loader that may be placed inside structures on lightly designed office building or parking structure floors. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Skin Turgor: The reflection of the skin’s elasticity, measured by monitoring the time it takes for the skin to change shape and return to normal. The assessment of skin turgor is used clinically to determine the extent of dehydration. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Sling: Assembly that connects the load to the material handling equipment (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.184). Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Sling Load: Force exerted on one leg of a multi-leg sling; calculated using the following formula: Load angle factor × ½ of total load weight. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Slope of Grain: In lumber, the angle formed between the direction of wood fibers and the long axis of the member; usually expressed as a ratio of rise-to-run, for example, 1:12. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Smiling Holes: Areas where a strong flow reversal occurs in the center while the downstream current continues on the sides. Also called Closed Holes.  Exit from a smiling/closed hole is possible through either side and is easier than such an exit from a frowning/open hole.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Snatch Block: A pulley block with a side plate that opens to allow placement of the cable directly onto the pulley; allow the changing of direction of the cable when the anchor point is offset. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Snatch Block: A wood or steel shell single pulley block that can be opened on one side to accept a rope or cable. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Sociability: The level of comfort a canine displays around people and other canines. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Socket Termination: A type of rope fitting used to end a length of wire rope; common types: wedge, spelter, and swage sockets. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Soft 1st Story Collapse: Occurs when only the first story of a building collapses (usually due to earthquake) due to the weakness and/or reduced stiffness of the 1st story when compared to the remainder of the building. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Sortie: In air operations, a sortie is a flight by an aircraft and is described as one takeoff and landing of the aircraft.  An air mission could include multiple sorties (multiple takeoffs and landings) during the entire air mission. Source: Standard Operating Procedures for FEMA IMAT and US&R Air Coordination. 

Sound Propagation: The rate of how sound travels or spreads from the original source. Source: FEMA US&R Technical Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Spalling: The expansion of excess moisture trapped within the cement of the concrete which in results in tensile forces within the concrete, causing it to break apart. Common occurrence when the concrete is exposed to fire. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Spandrel: That part of a wall between the head of a window and the sill of the window above. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Special Needs Population: A population whose members may have additional needs before, during, and after an incident in functional areas, including but not limited to: maintaining independence, communication, transportation, supervision, and medical care. Individuals in need of additional response assistance may include those who have disabilities; who live in institutionalized settings; who are elderly; who are children; who are from diverse cultures, who have limited English proficiency, or who are non- English-speaking; or who are transportation disadvantaged.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Special Response Team (SRT): A team whose size and makeup is incident-driven. The SRT is mobile and quick, can operate land-, water-, or air-based vehicles and have the purpose of investigating locations designated by the AHJ or Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator (SMC) as a targeted search location to determine if further action is required. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Special Response Team (SRT) Search: A search employed when the IC has identified specific evacuation requirements necessary to limit loss of life for special needs victims.  Prior to an event such as a hurricane, emergency managers should be able to identify and prioritize facilities that sheltered in place.  These facilities will likely have a significant number of survivors who may not be capable of providing for themselves if the event causes a complete disruption of services because of partial or complete collapse or rapid inundation of water.  Search resources should be deployed to investigate these pre-identified facilities that are likely to require evacuation assistance.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2009-009.

 

Sponsoring Agency: A State of Local Government that has executed a Memorandum of Agreement with DHS/FEMA to organize and administer a US&R task force.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.  

 

Sponsoring Agency Chief (SAC): The Chief (head) of the Sponsoring Agency of a System task force who is ultimately the final authority for that task force.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Sponsoring Agency Chief Representative – Divisional (SAC-D): A Sponsoring Agency Chief of a System task force who is elected by the SACs in their Division (East, Central, or West) to represent that Division on the Strategic Group.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Spontaneous Evacuation: When individuals in threatened areas observe an incident or receive unofficial notice of an actual or perceived threat and, without receiving instructions to do so, elect to evacuate the area. Their movement, means, and direction of travel are unorganized and unsupervised. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Spontaneous Evacuees: Evacuees who will evacuate regardless of directives by public officials due to perceived risk of danger. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Spot Report (SPOTREP):  A concise narrative report of essential/critical information covering events or conditions that may have an immediate and significant effect on current planning and operations. SPOTREP information is significant or urgent enough that it cannot wait until the next SITREP. SPOTREPs will be reported immediately and vetted by the responsible agency no later than one hour from event occurrence.  Source: FEMA US&R Branch Staff Manual, Annex A – Mobilization Manual.

Spreader Beam: A below-the-hook lifting device used to add stability to a load that has a single or multiple attachment points; distribute the load across more than one point. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Stafford Act: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 through 5206. Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208. 

 

Staging Area: Temporary location for available resources. A Staging Area can be any location in which personnel, supplies, and equipment can be temporarily housed or parked while awaiting operational assignment.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Standard Operating Procedure/Guideline (SOP/SOG): A reference document or operations manual that provides the purpose, authorities, duration, and details for the preferred method of performing a single function or a number of interrelated functions in a uniform manner.  Source: FEMA Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101.

 

Standard Paddle: A paddle with a T handle and “standard” length/type shaft. The blade is also called “standard” in both size and shape.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Standing Wave: A stationary wave caused by a change or obstruction on the bottom of the river pushing water to the top. Standing waves are caused by very similar circumstances as holes.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Starboard: The right side of the boat when facing the bow.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

State: Any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, or the Republic of the Marshall Islands.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.  

 

State Agency for Surplus Property: The Agency designated under state law to receive federal surplus personal property for distribution to eligible donees within the state as provided for in 40 USC 549.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC): An SEOC is the physical location at which the coordination of information and resources to support state incident management activities normally takes place. Emergency management organizations for each state coordinate state‐wide emergency response. Each state conducts its emergency response coordination activities from an EOC facility.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

State Staging Area (SSA): While similar to an ISB and FSA for resource staging, an SSA is the location where committed resources are typically transferred to the state. The supported state establishes and manages the SSAs, directing their location, movement, staffing, and operation. SSAs typically support state-managed points of distribution.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

State/Tribal/Territorial Approving Official: Designated state, tribal, or territorial representative who has the authority to sign FEMA RRFs outlining requests for federal assistance and committing the state, tribal, or territorial government to pay the applicable cost share.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Static Load: A load that remains constant. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Stay/Wait: Canine remains stationary at the handler’s command from any distance until the next command is given. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Stern: The back of the boat, where the motor would be if the vessel is motorized.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Stimulus Control: Having a known canine behavior reliably executed on conditioned stimulus (cue) 100 percent of the time. True stimulus control means: a) behavior always occurs when cue is given; b) behavior is never offered if cue is not given; c) behavior is never offered when different cue is given; and d) no other behavior is offered in response to this behavior’s cue. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Stock Record Account: The records of property held by an activity.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Storm Surge: An abnormal rise in sea level accompanying a hurricane or other intense storm, and whose height is the difference between the observed level of the sea surface and the level that would have occurred in the absence of the cyclone. Storm surge is usually estimated by subtracting the normal or astronomic high tide from the observed storm tide.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Strainers: Obstructions along the top of the water (such as downed trees) that allow water to flow through/under but trap a floating person or vessel.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Strategic Group: Comprised of FEMA Operations Division Director and US&R Branch Chief, the three Divisional SAC Representatives, TFR-N and the Advisory Group Chair. Provides the US&R Branch with recommendations to establish priorities for the System on matters regarding policy, strategic goals, budget and issues with financial impact on System Sponsoring Agencies and taskforces.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Strategies: The general methods used to achieve the IST Leader’s objectives. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum. 

Strength (STR): Type of observation that explains how activities within policy or guidance yielded better results than usual in a particular disaster. Strengths document processes or systems that are working and being implemented as intended.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Stress: A force per unit area exerted upon a structural member that strains or deforms its shape. See also: Compression, Shear, and Tension. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Structures Specialist (StS): A position on a task force responsible for performing the various structural assessments for the task force during incident operations.   The StS is a specially trained structural engineer that has completed the USACE Structural Specialist 1 course and meets all required training and experience requirements.  A Structures Specialist may either be a member of a FEMA US&R Task Force or from a cadre of US&R trained US Army Corps of Engineers.   Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Structural Assessment: A more detailed structural assessments conducted after the RST for buildings prioritized for US&R operations. StS perform assessments of the assigned structures' exterior and interior to determine structure type, location of falling, collapse or other hazards, continuity of load paths and access points. This would include clearly mark the structure(s) assessed at the point of entry in accordance with the standard marking system, drawing a crude plan to indicate possible access points, location of structural hazards and the most productive methods of hazard reduction, and noting the indication of normal egress routes (i.e., corridors, stairs, etc.) for any possible voids or victim locations.  Source:  FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex J - FEMA US&R and USACE Concept of Operations.

 

Structure Damage, Destroyed: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating the structure is a total loss that is encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Structure Damage, Major Damage:  A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating structural damage or other significant damage that requires extensive repairs that is encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Structure Damage, Minor Damage: A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating repairable non-structural damage that is encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Structure Damage, Affected:  A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating damage to the structure which is mostly cosmetic that is encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Structure Damage, Unaffected:  A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating no visible or reported damage that is encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Structure Damage, Unknown:  A wide area search waypoint data entry indicating the status of the structure is unknown that is encountered during US&R operations.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001.

 

Structure Hazard Mitigation Plan: Completed during and following structural assessments, this plan typically become part of the Incident Action Plan (IAP). Structure mitigation plans can include recommendations for shoring, bracing, hazard avoidance, structure element tieback, monitoring or other structural hazard mitigations. Plans may start as rough sketches but can be changed and improved as the incident progresses. US&R Structure Hazard Mitigation forms have been developed for the StS to efficiently develop and communicate mitigation methods and locations (MIT-1 and MIT-Log).  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex J - FEMA US&R and USACE Concept of Operations.

Structure Marking: Marking placed close to an entry point on a structure to indicate the risk level to searchers (low, medium, or high). Marking includes identifying who did the assessment, date and time of the assessment, and any

hazards. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Structural Monitoring: The monitoring of structurally compromised elements that are often extremely difficult or time consuming to mitigate prior to lifesaving US&R operations (e.g., a column, wall, roof or floor that has lost intermediate support). The fundamentals of structural monitoring for US&R include a Monitoring Plan, effective Emergency Communication Plan, Specialized Monitoring Tools and Trained Monitoring Personnel.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex J - FEMA US&R and USACE Concept of Operations.

 

Stud: Vertical structural uprights (2x4, 2x6 spaced 16” to 24”) which make up the walls and partitions in a frame building. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Subcutaneous Abscess: A pus-filled cavity located in the superficial skin layers caused by penetration of the skin by bacteria following a cut or other dermal disruption. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Subgroup: Part of the Advisory Support Group and responsible for performing specific functions or tasks assigned by the Functional Group to which it is assigned. Members are chosen for their interest, experience, and expertise in the various US&R disciplines and are in either an active or reserve status. Each Subgroup is assigned to one of the four Functional Groups and the Subgroup Leader is member of that assigned Functional Group.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Subject Matter Expert (SME):  A level of designation of a US&R instructor that is typically specialized in one or more areas of the curriculum but is not authorized to teach all of the Instructor-Led Training modules.  SME instructors work under the guidance of the Lead Instructor and typically teach course modules based on their background and professional expertise (example: structural engineers).  The number of SME Instructors allowed to teach a course is prescribed by the instructor to student ratio in the current course curriculum.  Source: FEMA US&R Training Administration Program Manual.  

 

Subungual Hematoma: Accumulation of blood between the nail plate and nailbed following blunt or crush trauma. This condition is oftentimes painful and causes discoloration of the nail. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Supervisor: The Incident Command System title for an individual responsible for a Division or Group.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Supplies: All property that is: Consumed or expended within one year after being put to use; Converted in the process of construction or manufacturing; Used to form a major part of another item of equipment or fixed property; Of limited value, such as calendar standards, carafe sets, pen sets, telephone list finders, and waste receptacles.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Support Annex: Describes how Federal Departments and Agencies, the private sector, volunteer organizations, and nongovernmental organizations coordinate and execute the common support processes and administrative tasks required during an incident. The actions described in the Support Annexes are not limited to particular types of events, but are overarching in nature and applicable to nearly every type of incident.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Support Specialist: A person participating in the System who assists the Task Force with administrative or other support during mobilization, ground transportation and demobilization as directed.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208. 

 

Surf Passage: The safe route through the surf zone.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Surf Zone: Area where a large body of water nears a shore, causing waves to break.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Surge Account: A surge account is a DRF sub-account administratively created by FEMA to source and record costs for preliminary damage assessments and other pre-declaration activities.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Surge Funding: Surge funding comprises funds from the DRF used for pre-declaration mobilization and readiness activities, including the NRCC and RRCC activations, emergency support function activations, deployments, preliminary damage assessment activities, and certain pre-declaration staging activities.  Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Surplus Personal Property: Any personal property that is determined by GSA to have no federal requirements.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Survivor Collection Point: A transitional point during rescue operations where survivors can be accounted for, possibly have some initial basic needs cared for, and from which they can be transported to a place of safety. This is the first of multiple potential Transportation Hubs that a survivor will transit and is where ESF #9 does a handoff to ESF #6 or ESF #8 resources. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Suspended Ceiling: A ceiling built several inches or feet below the supporting roof or floor beams above, sometimes called a ”hanging” or ”dropped” ceiling. The concealed space is sometimes called a ”cockloft” or ”plenum” if it is used for HVAC. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Suspended Personnel Platform Safety Checklist (SL-1): Used as checklist to document the inspection of a suspended personnel platform upon arrival at the disaster site and at the beginning of each operational period. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Survey: The process by which a determination is made as to how property was damaged, lost, or destroyed.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Survey123: The ArcGIS software application used by the FEMA US&R System to collect and record data during US&R operations.   Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.

 

Survey Board: Three or more FEMA employees who have been selected to conduct impartial investigations and/or causative research into the facts surrounding the loss, damage, or destruction of Government property.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Survey Official:  A FEMA employee who has been selected to conduct impartial investigations and/or causative research into the facts surrounding the loss, damage, or destruction of Government property.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Swiftwater: Water moving at a rate greater than one knot (1.15 mph).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Swiftwater Rescue: Swiftwater rescue (also called "whitewater rescue") is a subset of technical rescue dealing in whitewater river conditions. Due to the added pressure of moving water, swiftwater rescue involves the use of specially trained personnel, ropes and mechanical advantage systems that are often much more robust than those used in standard rope rescue. The main goal is to use or deflect the water’s power to assist in the rescue of the endangered person(s), as in most situations there is no easy way to overcome the power of the water.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Swivel Hoist Ring: A device used to create a pivoting rigging connection point for lifting. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Synthetic Sling: A sling made from nylon, polyester, aramid, Kevlar, Dacron, polyethylene, or Nomex fibers; constructed with metal or eye ends that require sewing; may be subject to more rapid degradation than an endless loop. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

System: The National Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) response capability administered by DHS/FEMA.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.   

 

System Member: A member of a FEMA US&R task force, Incident Support Team (IST), Technical Specialist, Support Specialist or Disaster Search Canine Team.  Source:  Title 44 CFR Part 208.  

 

T

Tactics: The deployment and directing of resources on an incident to accomplish the objectives designated by strategy.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Tactical Worksheet (TWS): A single-page document that addresses the tactical assignments the task force uses to meet the strategic objectives in the Incident Action Plan (IAP).   A new TWS is developed each operational period to guide task force actions in the next operational period. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Tag Line: Long ropes attached to the load that allow ground personnel to pivot the load as it swings on the crane’s hook to prevent the load from colliding with objects near it. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Target Odor: The odor/scent for which the canine is trained to respond.  Within the context of this handbook, the term, “Target Odor” may be used in reference to live human detection or to the detection of human remains.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook.

 

Targeted Search: The search of a specific locations. A targeted search is employed when the IC/AHJ has identified specific sites or conditions that may take priority over others within an assigned region or segment. Subsequent to an event such as a hurricane, emergency managers should be able to identify and prioritize facilities. These locations may be based on critical needs of the jurisdiction (unanswered 911 requests for help); high occupancy loads (schools or malls) or due to specific evacuation requirements necessary to limit loss of life for individuals with special needs. These facilities will likely have a significant number of survivors who may not be capable of providing for themselves if the event causes a complete disruption of services. Targeted Searches may be performed to any level of detail (Hasty, Primary, Secondary Low, and Secondary High) per the rules of engagement. Refer to Program Directive 2014-013 for additional characteristics of a targeted search.  Source: FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013.

 

Task Force: An integrated Urban Search & Rescue organization of multi-disciplinary resources with common communications and a leader, organized and administered by a Sponsoring Agency and meeting DHS/FEMA standards, which has entered into a memorandum of agreement with FEMA to provide services as part of a federal response.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Task Force Administration Manual: Serves as a guide for the daily operations of the task force and the policies, procedures of the task force.  This document is written by the Sponsoring Agency.   Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex B – US&R Cooperative Agreements.

 

Task Force Base of Operations Location Checklist: A form developed to assist Task Force personnel select a location for the Base of Operations. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Task Force Command Post (TFCP): Central control point within the Task Force Base of Operations. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

 

Task Force Fact Sheet: A document that summarizes the composition, capabilities and limitations, and support requirements of a US&R Task Force. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

Task Force General Requirements: The general administrative and training requirements that all task force and IST members must meet to be considered deployable.  Described in Chapter 2 of Annex E, the administrative requirements describe the documents that must be on file for each member and the training requirements describe all training certificates that must be on file in a member’s training record.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Task Force Leader (TFL): A position on the task force responsible for managing all aspects of a mission including operational and administrative issues from the time of activation through the return to the home jurisdiction. This includes all personnel and equipment resources as well as overseeing and directly supervising the task force management. The TFL is responsible for the development and completion of all task force tactical objectives as well as the proper reporting, record keeping, and after-action requirements.  The TFL reports directly to the DHS/FEMA NRCC during the mobilization and demobilization phases of the mission and the Incident Support Team (IST) at a mission location.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Task Force Member: A person occupying a position on a Task Force.  Source Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Task Force Member Exposure: Exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the task force member were not using respiratory protection.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment.

 

Task Force Mobilization Manual: Serves as a working document with detailed appendices containing how-to checklists, as well as examples of mobilization documents and lists, for task force personnel to use in executing specific deployment tasks.  Each of the 28 Sponsoring Agencies is responsible to publish a Task Force Mobilization Manual.   Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Task Force Operations Manual: Serves as a guide for task force personnel to perform Federal disaster response operations during major disasters or emergencies.  This document is written by the Sponsoring Agency.   Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual.

 

Task Force Operations Report: A form for documenting events during the execution of rescue operations. Source: FEMA US&R Field Operations Guide.

Task Force Representative (TFR): A member of a System task force who is selected by that task force’s SAC to serve as a Task Force Representative (TFR).  TFRs facilitate the review of, and comment on, System developed products to ensure compatibility with task force and Sponsoring Agency requirements. Through their elected Divisional Task Force Representative, TFRs will recommend to the Advisory Group’s Senior Staff changes in developed products for review and consideration. The TFR is the approved primary point of contact for all formal System communications with their task force.   Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Task Force Representative – Divisional (TFR-D): A member of a System task force, who has been selected by their task force SAC to serve as a TFR, or appointed by their TFR to serve as Deputy TFR, and who has been elected by the other TFRs in their US&R Division (East, Central, or West) to represent their Division’s interests in the Advisory Organization. The TFR-Ds are members of Senior Staff supporting the TFR-N and represent their Division by attending Strategic Group meetings as non-voting participants. TFR-Ds will ensure that work products and decisions are shared with the TFRs of their Division, and that their input is given full consideration by the Advisory Organization.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Task Force Representative – National (TFR-N): A member of a System task force, selected by that task force’s SAC to serve as a TFR, or appointed by their TFR to serve as Deputy TFR.  This position is elected by the System’s 28 TFRs to represent their interests and ensure that their input on issues is given full consideration in the Advisory Organization. The TFR-N is a voting member of the Strategic Group who provides consolidated input from, and coordinates the functions of, the TFR-D’s.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

Task Force (TF) Security and Protective Services Specialist (SPSS): A collateral duty position on a task force responsible for coordinating with ESF #13 personnel and local and state Law Enforcement Agencies for the protection of personnel and equipment of the Task Force.  This position reports directly to the Logistics Manager and the Task Force Leader. Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Task Force Self-Evaluation: An annually occurring self-evaluation each Sponsoring Agency conducts on itself, generally after the first half of the period of performance established in the Readiness Cooperative Agreement.  The Sponsoring Agency is responsible for completing an objective assessment of the three following categories, which are the foundation of the evaluation: Operational Readiness, Logistical Readiness, Management Readiness.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluations.

 

Task Intelligence: The level information that directly impact successful execution at the mission level.  The impacts are task-oriented and for the deployed resources such as task forces, strike teams and individual resources.  An example of task-level intelligence would be the status of local bridges and road network passability or possibly verified clustered 911 requests for rescue. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Technical Information Specialist (TIS): A position on the task force responsible for documenting, tracking, and retrieving all pertinent information for the task force during incident operations. The Technical Information Specialist reports directly to the Planning Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Technical Repair: A permanent repair that may require removing equipment from service for the operational period. Examples include repairs requiring patching or welding.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

Technical Search: Use of electronic listening or viewing devices as additional capabilities for the search function. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Technical Search Specialist (TSS): A position on the task force responsible for performing the technical search function of the task force incident operation. The Technical Search Specialist reports directly to the Search Team Manager.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

Technical Specialist: The person participating in the System contributing technical knowledge and skill who may be placed on Alert or Activated as a single resource and not as a part of an IMAT or a Task Force.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

 

Tactical Action Plan (TAP): The plan developed by the task force that includes unit objectives, resource assignments, safety messages, communications, and medical treatment information.  This plan is prepared for each operational period.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual.

 

Telemedicine: The remote diagnosis and treatment of patients by means of telecommunications technology such as smart devices or computers. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Telescoping Paddle: A paddle with a T handle and standard length/type shaft when extended. The unique aspects of the telescoping paddle are that the shaft can collapse in on itself for easier stowing and the blade is a small version of the standard shape. These aspects allow telescoping paddles to take up a minimal amount of space when stowed.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR): A TFR is a regulatory action issued via the U.S. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) system to restrict certain aircraft from operating within a defined area, on a temporary basis, to protect persons or property in the air or on the ground.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tensile Strength: The rated strength of a structural element or rope when it is loaded in tension. (Also Breaking Strength). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Tension Stress: Stress placed on a structural member by the pull of forces causing extension. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Termination: A CISAR term signifying that all known persons are located and accounted for and no other CISAR issues have arisen.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Terrorism: An activity that involves an act that is dangerous to human life or potentially destructive of critical infrastructure or key resources; is a violation of the criminal laws of the U.S. or of any State or other subdivision of the U.S.; and appears to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping.  Source: Homeland Security Act of 2002

 

Territory: Territories are one type of political division of the U.S., overseen directly by the Federal Government and not any part of a U.S. State. Under the Stafford Act, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands are included in the definition of "State." Stafford Act assistance is also available to two sovereign nations under the compact of free association: (1) Federated States of Micronesia (FSM); and the (2) Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Thoracostomy: An incision made into the chest wall to provide an opening for the purpose of draining air, blood, or fluids. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Threat: Natural or manmade occurrence, individual, entity, or action that has or indicates the potential to harm life, information, operations, the environment, and/or property.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Throw Bag: Most known as a life safety rope to be thrown to anyone in the water needing rescue, throw bags are useful for a variety of purposes, most often as a general utility rope.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Thwart: The crosspiece on a raft that rowers sit on.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Time Last Seen (TLS): The time the missing person was last seen. Time Last Seen (TLS) is found by performing a Search And Rescue (SAR) interview. This information helps narrow the search area and hopefully increase the Probability of Detection (POD). Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Time-phased Force Deployment Data (TPFDD): The method used by DoD to schedule the movement of resources by priority in order to create a deliberate plan or execute contingency operations.  Source:  FEMA Transportation Management Guide. 

 

Tipping Axis: An imaginary line created by the parts of a crane in contact with the ground on its loaded side. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Tipping Moment: Point at which a load causes the crane to rotate (tip) at its tipping axis due to excessive load weight and/or boom extension. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Tornado: A violently rotating column of air, usually pendant to a cumulonimbus, with circulation reaching the ground. It nearly always starts as a funnel cloud and may be accompanied by a loud roaring noise. On a local scale, it is the most destructive of all atmospheric phenomena.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tornado Warning: Issued when a tornado is indicated by radar or sighted by spotters; therefore, people in the affected area should seek safe shelter immediately. Tornado Warnings can be: issued without a Tornado Watch being already in effect; are usually issued for a duration of approximately 30 minutes; and issued by the local National Weather Service office (NWFO). Tornado Warnings will include where the tornado was located and what towns will be in its path. If the tornado will affect the near shore or coastal waters, it will be issued as the combined product: Tornado Warning and Special Marine Warning. If the thunderstorm which is causing the tornado is also producing torrential rains, this warning may also be combined with a Flash Flood Warning. After the Tornado Warning is issued, the affected NWFO will issue Severe Weather Statements that contain updated information on the tornado and when warning is no longer in effect.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tornado Watch: Issued by the National Weather Service when conditions are favorable for the development of tornadoes in and close to the watch area. The Tornado Watch size can vary depending on the weather situation, but are usually issued for a duration of 4 to 8 hours. Tornado Watches are normally issued well in advance of the actual occurrence of severe weather. During the watch, people should review tornado safety rules and be prepared to move a place of safety if threatening weather approaches.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Torsional Load: A load that creates a twisting stress on a structural member. Example: when a pipe is used to tighten or loosen the pipe or end fitting, it exerts a Torsional Load on the pipe. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Towing Bridle: Ropes attached to the bow or the stern used when one vessel tows another.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Trainer: Person who makes the decisions regarding which technique is used to get the canine to perform a specific task. Trainer may be handler, helper, or a third person who is observing. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Training: Process that identifies a goal-oriented task and provides a plan to teach or modify a desired canine behavior. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Training Cycle: Steps to canine training consisting of identifying a goal, developing a plan, implementing the plan, and assessing whether the goal was achieved. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

Training Program Administration Manual (TPAM): A manual containing applicable key elements include types of training, criteria and approval processes, instructor credentialing, member certification, and records management. Additionally, the duties and responsibilities of the Task Force Training Manager, as well as those of the Divisional Training Subgroup Representative.  Source: FEMA US&R Training Administration Program Manual. 

 

Training Sessions/Drills: Static, component trainings that are short in duration (lasting for only a few hours). They are conducted periodically (either monthly or quarterly) in a classroom or outdoor facility for the purpose of meeting initial training requirements or continuing education requirements of skills review. Training sessions address a limited number of objectives. The phases or functions of the exercises are also limited, as are the use of the equipment cache or training props and interaction with individuals outside the task force.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluation.   

 

Transfer: A change in accountability jurisdiction, and thus a change in property custodian or to another DHS Component or federal agency.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Transfer Point: If applicable, locations where transportation-assisted evacuees move from their initial evacuation modes of transportation onto other transportation to a reception processing site or a shelter. Also called Assembly and Transfer Center. Depending on drive times and/or distances, relief drivers and/or vehicles may be needed to comply with state and/or Federal safety regulations. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Transition Plans: One of the four types of adjunct plans that provides an orderly assumption of responsibilities by another response entity, such as when one task force is relieving or being relieved by another task force or local emergency responders. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Transom: The vertical part of the stern of a motorized boat where the motor is attached.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Transom Clamps: Devices used to secure motors to the stern of different boats or to trailers for transport.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Transportation Hub: A temporary location exclusively for evacuation embarkation and transportation coordination in a field setting. Basic life-sustaining services are not generally available.  Also known as an Evacuation Transportation Site, Evacuation Assembly Point, or Pickup Point. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Transportation Plans: One of the four types of adjunct plans that may be needed if the work area is located at a distance from the Base Camp or if the task force members need to be transported from point A to point B. Source: FEMA US&R Task Force Leader Training Course Curriculum.  

Transportation Providers (or Transportation Service Providers):  Transportation providers can be commercial or federal. Generally, FEMA relies on commercial transportation providers, sourced through a GSA bidding process, to ship commodities. Other commercial transportation providers may be activated through a national-level contract. Federal transportation providers include ESF partners with significant transportation resources, such as the USCG and DoD. Transportation providers are responsible for providing tracking information to movement coordination staff on the locations and estimated arrival times of shipments enroute.  Source:  FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 

Trauma and Critical Care Team (TCCT): A deployable federal medical team of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) that deploys to provide critical, operative, and emergency care to supplement federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial resources.  The team deploys critical care physicians, surgeons, emergency medical physicians, nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, paramedics, respiratory therapists, radiological technologists, surgical technologists, and pharmacists.  The TCCT can deploy as 9, 10, 28, or 48 person units designed to provide trauma related support during disasters. Source: US Department of Health and Human Services website.

Traumatic Asphyxia: The restriction of respiratory movements and chest wall excursions caused by external compression of the chest or upper abdominal region.  The restriction of inspiration inhibits oxygen transport and the negative intrathoracic pressure needed to transport blood to the right side of the heart. This also causes reflow of blood to the neck and head, which leads to the cessation of cerebral blood flow, thus resulting in loss of consciousness and, ultimately, death if compressive forces are not removed. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Trench Foot: A painful condition of feet due to prolonged exposure of the feet to cold and damp conditions. Source: FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum.

Trend: A recurring pattern happening over time.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Trend Analysis: A Continuous Improvement product that reviews recurring observations and changes over time; A data analysis technique that identifies recurring strengths or challenges and changes in both over time; An Improvement Planning Workshop activity that illustrates how often a particular observation has been identified in the past.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

 

Tribal Assistance Coordination Group (TAC-G): The TAC-G is: Federal Government representatives that support Emergency Support Function #15 (External Affairs) and the Tribal Relations Support Annex of the NRF during disaster response operations under the Stafford Act; provides liaison officers to coordinate between Tribal Governments and the Incident Command; and comprised of Indian Affairs, Indian Health Services, and Federal Emergency Management Agency representatives.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tribal Government (Indian): Any Federally recognized governing body of an Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community that the Secretary of Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian Tribe under the Federally Recognized Tribe List Act of 1994, 25 U.S.C 479a (does not include Alaska Native corporations, the ownership of which is vested in private individuals).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tribal Leader (Indian): Individual responsible for the public safety and welfare of the people of that tribe.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tribe (Indian): An Indian Tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including a native village, regional corporation, or village corporation, as those terms are defined in Section 3 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 USC 1602), which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians (36 CFR Part 800).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Trolling: A boat maneuvering technique that is a slow movement against the current. This would be done with a positive attitude and just enough propulsion to overcome the current. Trolling happens at idle speeds, and the boat would be flat in the water while the prop/intake is low in the water. Trolling produces little to no wake. Trolling is the rescue posture.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Tropical Cyclone: A warm-core non-frontal synoptic-scale cyclone, originating over tropical or subtropical waters, with organized deep convection and a closed surface wind circulation about a well- defined center. Once formed, a tropical cyclone is maintained by the extraction of heat energy from the ocean at high temperature and heat export at the low temperatures of the upper troposphere.  In this they differ from extratropical cyclones, which derive their energy from horizontal temperature contrasts in the atmosphere (baroclinic effects).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tropical Depression: A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind speed (using the U.S. 1-minute average) is 33 kt (38 mph or 62 km/hr) or less.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tropical Disturbance: A discrete tropical weather system of apparently organized convection -- generally 100 to 300 mi. in diameter -- originating in the tropics or subtropics, having a nonfrontal migratory character, and maintaining its identity for 24 hours or more. It may or may not be associated with a detectable perturbation of the wind field.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tropical Storm: A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind speed (using the U.S. 1-minute average) ranges from 34 kt (39 mph or 63 km/hr) to 63 kt (73 mph or 118 km/hr).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tropical Storm Warning: An announcement that tropical storm conditions (sustained winds of 39 to 73 mph) are expected somewhere within the specified coastal area within 36 hours.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tropical Storm Watch: An announcement that tropical storm conditions (sustained winds of 39 to 73 mph) is possible within the specified coastal area within 48 hours.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tropical Wave: A trough or cyclonic curvature maximum in the trade-wind easterlies. The wave may reach maximum amplitude in the lower middle troposphere.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Truss: A braced arrangement of steel or wood frame work made with triangular connecting members. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Tsunami: A series of long-period waves (on the order of tens of minutes) that are usually generated by an impulsive disturbance that displaces massive amounts of water, such as an earthquake occurring on or near the sea floor.  As tsunamis reach the shallow waters near the coast, they begin to slow down while gradually growing steeper, due to the decreasing water depth. The building walls of destruction can become extremely large in height, reaching tens of meters 30 feet or more as they reach the shoreline. The effects can be further amplified where a bay, harbor, or lagoon funnels the waves as they move inland. Large tsunamis have been known to rise to over 100 feet. The amount of water and energy contained in tsunami can have devastating effects on coastal areas.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tsunami Advisory: Products of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC - Pacific (except Alaska, British Columbia and Western States) Hawaii, Caribbean (except Puerto Rico, Virgin Is.), and Indian Ocean): The third highest level of tsunami alert. Advisories are issued to coastal populations within areas not currently in either warning or watch status when a tsunami warning has been issued for another region of the same ocean. An Advisory indicates that an area is either outside the current warning and watch regions or that the tsunami poses no danger to that area. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tsunami Information Statement: Issued to inform emergency management officials and the public that an earthquake has occurred, or that a tsunami warning, watch, or advisory has been issued for another section of the ocean. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tsunami Warning: Products of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC - Pacific (except Alaska, British Columbia and Western States) Hawaii, Caribbean (except Puerto Rico, Virgin Is.), and Indian Ocean): The highest level of tsunami alert. Warnings are issued due to the imminent threat of a tsunami from a large undersea earthquake or following confirmation that a potentially destructive tsunami is underway.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Tsunami Watch: Products of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC - Pacific (except Alaska, British Columbia and Western States) Hawaii, Caribbean (except Puerto Rico, Virgin Is.), and Indian Ocean): The second highest level of tsunami alert. Watches are issued based on seismic information without confirmation that a destructive tsunami is underway. Issued as a means of providing an advance alert to areas that could be impacted by destructive tsunami waves.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Turnbuckle: A device used to adjust the tension or length of ropes, cables, and other tensioning systems; often configured with eye, jaw, or hook ends. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Two Blocking: Occurs when the block or headache ball makes contact with the sheaves at the boom tip. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Type: An Incident Command System resource classification that refers to capability. Type 1 is generally considered to be more capable than Types 2, 3, or 4, respectively, because of size, power, capacity, or (in the case of Incident Management Teams) experience andqualifications.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Typhoon: A tropical cyclone in the Western Pacific Ocean in which the maximum 1-minute sustained surface wind is 64 knots (74 mph) or greater.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Typhoon Season: The part of the year having a relatively high incidence of tropical cyclones. In the western North Pacific, the typhoon season is from July 1 to December 15. Tropical cyclones can occur year-round in any basin.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

U

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMPE): A high-strength synthetic rope used for overhead lifting and rigging. Used in almost any application where wire rope can be used, it offers an equal or greater strength to wire rope size for size, but it is more lightweight than wire rope. This type of rope excels for water-based applications because it is buoyant and water-resistant. It is also referred to by chemical-based trade names such as Dyneema and Plasma Rope. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Unaccompanied Minor: A non-emancipated child, who is under the age of 18 and is the responsibility of a parent, legal guardian, or relative, who arrives at a shelter or other evacuation site without their parent, legal guardian, or other relative. These individuals should be put under the charge of local Child Protective Services and registered with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children database to allow quicker identification and reunification. Source: FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place.

Unified Area Command: A Unified Area Command is established when incidents or accidents under an Area Command are multijurisdictional (see Area Command).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Unified Command (UC): An Incident Command System application used when more than one agency has incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. Agencies work together through the designated members of the UC, often the senior persons from agencies and/or disciplines participating in the UC, to establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident Action Plan.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Unified Coordination Group (UCG): Provides leadership within the Joint Field Office. The Unified Coordination Group is comprised of specified senior leaders representing State and Federal interests, and in certain circumstances Tribal Governments, local jurisdictions, the private sector, or nongovernmental organizations. The Unified Coordination Group typically consists of the Principal Federal Official (if designated), Federal Coordinating Officer, State Coordinating Officer, and senior officials from other entities with primary statutory or jurisdictional responsibility and significant operational responsibility for an aspect of an incident (e.g., the Senior Health Official, Department of Defense representative, or Senior Federal Law Enforcement Official if assigned).  Within the Unified Coordination Group, the Federal Coordinating Officer is the primary Federal official responsible for coordinating, integrating, and synchronizing Federal response activities.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Unit: Part of the Advisory Support Group and responsible for performing specific functions or tasks assigned by the Subgroup to which it is assigned. Units are comprised of members from System task forces, and other non-System technical experts as required. Members are chosen for their interest, experience, and expertise in the various US&R disciplines and are in either an active or reserve status. Each Unit will be assigned to one of the Subgroups and the Unit Leader is a non-voting member of that assigned Subgroup.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC):  A team of specialists tasked with situation assessment and coordinating the international response.  UNDAC teams set up and manage the On-Site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC) to help coordinate international Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams responding to the disaster.   Source: INSARAG Guidelines.

 

United States (U.S.): The 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

United States National Grid (USNG): The primary geo-referencing source utilized by most state/local fire/rescue and by the FEMA National US&R Response System.  USNG is intended to create a more interoperable environment for developing location-based services within the US and establishing a preferred nationally consistent grid reference system. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

United States National Search and Rescue Supplement to the IAMSAR Manual (NSS): A federal manual on civil search and rescue that together with its various addenda, provides extensive guidance for implementation of the National Search Plan. Source: FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

US Agency for International (USAID): The federal agency that leads the U.S. Government's international development and disaster assistance through partnerships and investments that save lives, reduce poverty, strengthen democratic governance, and help people emerge from humanitarian crises and progress beyond assistance.  USAID is the headquarters component over the Bureau of Humanitarian Assistance (BHA).  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex I – International US&R Assistance CONOPS.  

 

Unity of Command: An Incident Command System principle stating that each individual involved in incident operations will be assigned to only one supervisor.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum. 

Universal Processor: An excavator attachment with up to six different types of jaws to chew up most any structural material. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Unmanned Aircraft (UA): A device used or intended to be used for flight in the air that has no onboard pilot. This device excludes missiles, weapons, or exploding warheads, but includes all classes of airplanes, helicopters, airships, and powered-lift aircraft without an onboard pilot. UAs do not include traditional balloons (refer to 14 C.F.R. § 101), rockets, and unpowered gliders. Source: Federal Aviation Administration Order 8900.1.

 

Unmanned Aircraft System:  An unmanned aircraft and associated elements (including communications links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft) that are required for the pilot-in-command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. (FAA MRA) 2. An unmanned aircraft and its associated elements related to safe operations, which may include control stations (ground-, ship-, or air-based), control links, support equipment, payloads, Flight Termination Systems (FTS), and launch/recovery equipment. (FAA 8900.1).  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Search and Rescue Addendum to the NSS to the IAMSAR Manual: A interagency document developed by NSARC to provide background, guidance, and relevant information on the use and employment of UAS in search and rescue operations. Source: UAS Search and Rescue Addendum to the NSS to the IAMSAR Manual.

Unreinforced Masonry (URM): Generally defined as masonry that contains no reinforcement in it.  The most common unreinforced masonry material used for the walls of buildings are brick and hollow concrete blocks.  Source: FEMA P-774: Unreinforced Masonry Buildings and Earthquakes, Developing Successful Risk Reduction Strategies.

 

Upstream: The direction the water is coming from.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Urban Search and Rescue (US&R): The process of searching for, extricating, and providing for the immediate medical stabilization of victims who are entrapped in collapsed structures.  Source: Title 44 CFR Part 208.

Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Marking System: Structure, search, and victim markings indicating structure evaluation, search results, and victim status. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

USAR Coordination Cell (UCC): A cell within the OSOCC but is established prior to the arrival of the rest of the OSOCC personnel. The UCC functions is a stand-alone entity until absorbed into the full OSOCC structure and the personnel who begin the coordination process should remain in the UCC throughout the disaster to ensure continuity.  Source: INSARAG Guidelines.

 

US&R Branch Project Officer (BPO): A US&R Branch staff member assigned to the Strategic Group, Senior Staff, or one of the Functional Groups who serves as that entity’s Federal liaison, facilitates member elections and meeting logistics.  The BPO also provides the FEMA perspectives on Federal regulations, policies, procedures, as well as current Agency and US&R Branch priorities and fiscal considerations.  The BPO attends meetings as necessary, monitors progress on assigned projects and facilitates the product review, approval, and distribution processes.  Source: FEMA US&R Administration Manual, Annex A – Advisory Organization.

 

US&R Boat Operator: A position on the task force responsible for performing the water rescue operations of the Task Force.  The US&R Boat Operator reports directly to a Water Squad Officer.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions.

 

US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE): Under the National Response Framework, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is assigned as a supporting agency for Emergency Support Function #9 – Search and Rescue.  USACE is the federal agency withing the Department of Defense responsible by way of Interagency Agreement with FEMA to conduct the training of US&R structural engineers for the National US&R Response System.  USACE is also responsible to maintain a cadre of volunteer Structures Specialists (StS) to augment the National US&R Response System.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex J - FEMA US&R and USACE Concept of Operations.

 

U.S. Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT): The interagency cooperation among the Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense’s U.S. Air Force (USAF), Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support the International Cospas-Sarsat Programme and to provide the capability to receive and process distress alerts from distress radio beacons via satellite accurately, to determine these alerts’ locations, and to relay this information to U.S. and foreign SAR authorities expeditiously, in order to facilitate the timely rescue of persons in the U.S. SAR regions and around the world.  Source: National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States.

 

Useful Life: The normal operating life of an asset in terms of utility to the owner.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

Utilization: The identification, reporting and transfer of excess personal property among Federal agencies to fill current or future authorized requirements instead of new procurements.  Source: FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s FOG.

 

V

Validation: The phase of the Continuous Improvement Process that involves data analysis and reporting.  Source: FEMA Continuous Improvement Program.

Variable Reinforcement Schedule: Schedule during canine training in which the timing (interval) or rate (ratio) of delivery of the reinforcement is varied. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Vector: An agent, such as an insect or rat, capable of transferring a pathogen from one organism to another.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Vertical (or Wall) Collapse Zone: The expected ground area that a falling wall will cover when it collapses. For safety, it is normally estimated as 1.25 to 1.5 times the height. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

Vertical Hitch: One eye of the sling is placed on the hook and the other end is attached directly to the load; tag lines often used to prevent load rotation. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Victim Information Center Team (VIC): A deployable federal team of the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) that deploys to help communities after a fatality or mass casualty incident.  The VIC team will support local authorities to help identify victims and serving as a liaison to the victim’s families or other responsible parties in support of another NDMS team.  The VIC team provide technical assistance and consultation on the collection and management of information and related issued concerning people who have lost their lives in a public health emergency or disaster. Source: US Department of Health and Human Services website.   

Victim Marking: Marking placed close to the victim indicating the location and status of victim, as well as an identifier of the search team that made the marking. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Virtual On-site Operations and Coordination Center (OSOCC): A web-based part of the OSOCC system that provides a platform for the coordination of international response activities   Source: INSARAG Guidelines.

 

Visual Flight Rules (VFR): Rules governing procedures for conducting flight under visual meteorological conditions. In addition, used by pilots and controllers to indicate type of flight plan. (The term "VFR" is also used in the U. S. to indicate weather conditions equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements.)  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Volunteer: For purposes of the National Incident Management System, any individual accepted to perform services by the lead agency (which has authority to accept volunteer services) when the individual performs services without promise, expectation, or receipt of compensation for services performed.  See 16 U.S.C. 742f(c) and 29 CFR 553.10.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

W

Wane: An edge or corner defect in lumber characterized by the presence of bark or the lack of wood. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Warning: A warning is issued when a hazardous weather or hydrologic event is occurring, is imminent, or has a very high probability of occurring. A warning is used for conditions posing a threat to life or property.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

 

Water Rescue Specialist: A position on the task force responsible for performing water operations of the task force incident operation.  The Water Rescue Specialist reports directly to a Rescue Squad Officer.  Source: FEMA US&R Operations Manual, Annex E – Position Descriptions

 

Watch: A watch is used when the risk of a hazardous weather or hydrologic event has increased significantly, but its occurrence, location, and/or timing is still uncertain. It is intended to provide enough lead time so that those who need to set their plans in motion can do so.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum. 

 

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): A destructive device as defined in section 921 of this title: a. The term “destructive device” means any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one- quarter ounce, mine, or similar device; any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors; any weapon involving a biological agent, toxin, or vector (as those terms are defined in section 179 of this title); or any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life.   Source: US Code 2332 a (c) 2

 

Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Team (WMD-CST): Joint Army and Air National Guard teams that provide chemical, biological, and radiological initial survey and assessment operations for domestic WMD incidents. The 57 WMD-CSTs are designed to provide a specialized capability to respond to a CBRNE incident primarily in a Title 32 status within the United States and its territories. The mission of the WMD-CST is to support civil authorities at domestic CBRNE incident sites by identifying CBRNE agents and substances, assessing current and projected consequences, advising on response measures, and assisting with appropriate requests for additional support. This includes incidents involving intentional or unintentional release of CBRNE and natural or manmade disasters that result or could result in the catastrophic loss of life or property in the United States.  Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum

 

Web: The wide vertical part of a steel beam between the flanges.  Steel beams that are called I or W Beams have a thicker steel flange at top and bottom with a thinner Web, which is the vertical element between the horizontal Flanges. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Web Member: Secondary members of a steel or wood truss contained between   chords, usually configured diagonally. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Web-based Emergency Operations Center (WebEOC):  FEMA’s official Crisis Management System (CMS) which provides real-time situational awareness and a common operating picture during national responses and daily response planning operations. Incident Support (IS) and Incident Management (IM) positions are required to use WebEOC and the status boards within the system that support their duties. Source: FEMA Mission Assignment Guide.

 

Wheel Kit: An add-on feature to jon boats and inflatable rescue boats to assist in moving the boat across land.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Wheel Loader: A piece of heavy equipment with a front-loading bucket used to load many types of materials. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Wide Area Search:  A systematic search over a large affected area with an unknown number of victims and survivor. Source: Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum.

Wide Area Search: (K9 Specific) - Incident that involves a large geographic area affected, with hundreds or thousands of structures and an unknown and large number of victims. This type of search overwhelms the local resource capacity and requires a wide variety of resources to perform search operations. Source: FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum.

 

Wildlife: Wildlife primarily lives independent of human control and rely on individual ability to obtain

food or water. Source: Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum.

Wind Load: Horizontal and vertical pressure imposed on a structure by the wind. The Wind Pressure is proportional to the speed Squared (for twice the speed, there is four times the pressure). Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Wide Turns: A boat maneuvering technique which is performed with a level camber in a large area and require no repositioning.  Source: FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum.

 

Wire Rope: A rope made from several strands of high-strength steel that are laid together to form a rope, usually around a central core. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Wire Rope Clip: A fitting for clamping parts of wire rope to each other; often used for wire rope terminations. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

 

Wire Rope Sling: A sling made from wire rope. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Wood frame: Type of construction using small wood, horizontal and vertical members, usually spaced at 16 to 24 inches, that is then covered by some sort of sheathing. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

Working Load Limit (WLL): Maximum mass or force a product is authorized to support in general service when the pull is applied in-line; includes the maximum load an item can lift and the maximum load an item can lift in a particular configuration or application. Source: FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum.

Wythe: A single vertical stack of bricks that are most often found in a multi-brick wall. Source: USACE StS Field Operations Guide.

 

X

 

Y

 

Z

 

#

463L Pallet: A 463L pallet is a standardized pallet used for transporting military air cargo. The 463L pallet is the main air-cargo pallet of the U.S. Air Force (USAF), designed to be loaded and offloaded on today's military airlifters, as well as many civilian Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) cargo aircraft. A 463L pallet measures 88 inches wide, 108 inches long, and 2¼ inches high. The usable space is 84 inches by 104 inches. The 463L pallet can hold up to 10,000 pounds of cargo (not exceeding 250 pounds per square inch). Empty, each pallet weighs 290 pounds or 355 pounds with two side nets and a top net.  Source: FEMA Transportation Management Guide.

 
 

Courses Under Review/Revision 

The following courses are currently under review to compile a list of specific terms and abbreviations defined within the curriculum:

  • FEMA US&R Task Force Safety Officer Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Planning Team Training Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Communications Specialist Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Enhanced Operations in a Contaminated Environment Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Hazardous Materials Specialist Course Curriculum (being done as part of this year’s curriculum revision)

  • FEMA US&R Structural Collapse Specialist Course Curriculum (being done as part of this year’s curriculum revision)

Sources

The following US&R System doctrine was utilized to compile the definitions in the list above.

 

  • Catastrophic Incident Search and Rescue Addendum

  • Federal Continuity Directive 1

  • FEMA Accountable Property Officer’s Field Operations Guide (FOG)

  • FEMA Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101

  • FEMA Damage Assessment Operations Manual

  • FEMA Mission Assignment Guide

  • FEMA National Incident Management System

  • FEMA P-774: Unreinforced Masonry Buildings and Earthquakes, Developing Successful Risk Reduction Strategies

  • FEMA Planning Considerations: Evacuations and Shelter-in-Place (July 2019)

  • FEMA Transportation Management Guide

  • FEMA US&R Doctrine Style Guide

  • FEMA US&R Program Directive 2009-009

  • FEMA US&R Program Directive 2014-013

  • FEMA US&R Program Directive 2018-003

  • FEMA US&R Program Directive 2020-008

  • FEMA US&R Program Directive 2021-001

  • 42 U.S.C 5149 Section 306(a)

  • Homeland Security Act of 2002

  • National Urban Search and Rescue Response System Act of 2016 S.2971

  • National Search and Rescue Plan of the United States

  • Public Law 114-326, National Urban Search and Rescue Response System Act of 2016

  • Title 2 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) § Part 200.56

  • Title 2 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) § Part 200.57

  • Title 44 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Chapter 1 – Federal Emergency Management Agency

  • Title 44 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 208 – National Urban Search and Rescue Response System

  • USACE StS Field Operations Guide

  • US Code 2332 a (c) 2

  • US Geological Survey and U.S. Board on Geographical Names

 

  • 100 – FEMA US&R Branch Staff Manual

  • 101 – Annex A – US&R Mobilization Manual

  • 102 – Annex B – NRCC ESF #9 Job Aid

 

  • 200 – FEMA US&R Administration Manual 

  • 201 – Annex A – US&R Advisory Organization

  • 202 – Annex B – US&R Cooperative Agreement

  • 203 – Annex C – US&R Task Force Program Manager Mentoring Guide

  • 204 – Annex D – US&R Reimbursement Reference Guide

  • 205 – Annex E – US&R Administrative Readiness Evaluations

 

  • 300 – FEMA US&R Operations Manual

  • 301 – Annex A – Response CONOPS

  • 302 – Annex B – US&R Operations in a Contaminated Environment

  • 303 – Annex C – Water Operations Concept of Operations

  • 304 – Annex D – Mission Ready Packages Concept of Operations

  • 305 – Annex E – Position Descriptions 

  • 306 – Annex F – Safety

  • 307 – Annex G – Canine Search Team Certification Evaluation Handbook

  • 308 – Annex H – Operational Readiness Exercise and Evaluation Program (OREEP)

  • 309 – Annex I – International US&R Assistance Concept of Operations 

  • 310 – Annex J – FEMA US&R and USACE Concept of Operations

  • 330 – US&R Field Operations Guide

  • 340 – Marking Standards Handbook

  • 341 – Search Strategy and Tactics Handbook

 

  • 600 – US&R Incident Support Handbook

 

  • 700 – FEMA US&R Training Program Administration Manual

 

  • FEMA US&R Canine Search Specialist Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Boat Operator Course Curriculum 

  • FEMA US&R Heavy Equipment and Riggers Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Logistics Team Training Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Medical Team Specialist Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Task Force Leader ILT Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Technical Search Specialist Course Curriculum

  • FEMA US&R Search Planning and Management Course Curriculum